Bilberry – Vaccinium Myrtillus


Family: Ericaceae
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Part Used:

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Young shoots

NOTE:These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Vaccinium myrtillus is a small, deciduous shrub that grows about 12 to 16 inches in height. Bilberry fruit originates from Northern and Central Europe and has been imported from parts of southeastern Europe. It has oval, pointed leaves and small pink and white flowers, which bloom from April through June. In the late summer, its dark purple berries are ripe to pick. Bilberry is a botanical relative of blueberry, cranberry, and huckleberry, and its fruit looks and tastes much like the American blueberry. These black, coarsely wrinkled berries contain many small, shiny brownish-red seeds. They have a somewhat caustic and sweet taste. Its thin, green leaves are oval, glabrous, reticulately-veined and about a half inch long. Leafy shoot development begins in March or April, with bud swell occurring about mid March. Its seeds ripen from July to September, producing sweet, plump blue-black berries that are traditionally used in the preparation of pies, cakes, and jams.

Phytotherapy indications: Vaccinium myrtillus has a wide range of medicinal uses, especially in the prevention of various eye conditions, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and cataracts. Its ability to strengthen blood vessels renders it useful for reducing inflammation and stabilizing collagen-containing tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. A tea made from the dried leaves is strongly astringent, diuretic, tonic, and antiseptic.


Oligo-elements:

Ba, B, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Ge, Mb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Si, Sr, Su, Ti, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

B1-Thiamine, B2-Riboflavin. B3 Niacin, C, Calcium, Inositol.


Phytochemical Constituents:

Anthocyanidins, Arbutin, Asperuloside, Astragalin, Benzoic-Acid, Beta-Amyrin, Beta-Carotene, Caffeic-Acid, Caryophyllene, Catechin,Chlorogenic-Acid, Citric-Acid, Cyanidin, Cyanidin-3-O-Galactoside, Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside, Delphinidin, Dihydroxycinnamic-Acid,Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin, Ferulic-Acid, Gallic-Acid, Hydroquinone, Hyperoside, Isoquercitrin, Lutein, Malic-Acid, Malvidin, Monotropein, Myrtillin, Nonacosane, O-Coumaric-Acid, Oleanolic-Acid, P-Hydroxy-Benzoic-Acid, Petunidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Protocatechuic-Acid, Quercetin, Quercetin-3'-Glucoside, Quercitrin, Quinic-Acid, Resveratrol, Succinic-Acid, Syringic-Acid, Tannin, Ursolic-Acid, Vanillic-Acid which is a benzoic acid derivative. It is an oxidized form of vanillin. It is also an intermediate in the production of vanillin from ferulic acid.
Resveratrol, Anthocyanins are natural pigments that possess antioxidant activities and are implicated in various health effects. Bilberry is an antihistamine. Bilberry normalizes capillary collagen thickness and blood sugar levels in humans and animals. Flavonoids include quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, and astragaline. Catechin tannins,many organic acids, pectins, and alkaloids.

Anthocyanin has anti-inflammatory, vasoprotective, and antioxidant effects. It has demonstrated free radical scavenging and inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase actions. Extract of bilberry can inhibit human leukemia cell and human colon carcinoma cell growth through the induction of apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo clinical studies showed inhibition of platelet aggregation and stimulation of vascular prostacyclin. Bilberry anthocyanins regenerate rhodopsin “a chromo protein (protein linked to a pigment-carrying substance) that is contained in the light-sensitive cells of the rod type in the retina of the eye; it functions in the eye's adaptation to dim light. When the eye is exposed to bright light, the rhodopsin bleaches; after an interval of darkness, it returns to its former purple-red color”, and are indicated in treatment of poor night vision, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataracts.


Citric Acid Health Benefits:

  • Helps prevent urinary tract infections.
  • Can be used as a natural preservative in lieu of synthetic chemicals.
  • Facilitates energy production within cells.
  • A great natural astringent (instead of alcohol).
  • Helps regulate pH in the digestive tract.
  • Promotes efficient digestive function.
  • Aids in the removal of toxins from the body.
  • Prevents dysentery, diarrhea, and other bowel diseases.
  • Helps breakdown fatty foods and increases appetite.


Abstracts of Published Research on Bilberry – (Vaccinium Myrtillus):

J Med Food. 2009 Jun;12(3):608-14
Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.Piljac-Zegarac J, Belscak A, Piljac A2.

Phytother Res. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Inhibitory actions of bilberry anthocyanidins on angiogenesis.Matsunaga N, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Hara H3.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Jul;53(7):869-77
Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo.Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Araki Y, Hara H.4.

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7803-7. Epub 2008 Aug 9.
Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice.Bao L, Yao XS, Yau CC, Tsi D, Chia CS, Nagai H, Kurihara H.5.

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 27;56(16):7545-50. Epub 2008 Jul 29
Effects of anthocyanins on psychological stress-induced oxidative stress and neurotransmitter status.Rahman MM, Ichiyanagi T, Komiyama T, Sato S, Konishi T.6.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:123-5
Berries as chemopreventive dietary constituents--a mechanistic approach with the ApcMin/+ mouse.Mutanen M, Pajari AM, Paivarinta E, Misikangas M, Rajakangas J, Marttinen M, Oikarinen S.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications

Most Powerful Antioxidants


Ophthalmology:

'P' Bilberry Rhodopsin Regenerating Ability.Prevent & treat Macular Degeneration wet or dry, Cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, myopia, pigmentary retinitis, improves eyestrain vision, night blindness vision, Blepharitis. Dry macular degeneration and other age-related eye diseases are often caused by a breakdown of the circulatory system of the eye. Bilberry extracts of the young shoots in concentrated PSC are a superior extract to any other part of the Bilberry, and have been shown to improve microcapillary circulation throughout the body. Bilberry anthocyanins regenerate rhodopsin “a chromo protein (protein linked to a pigment-carrying substance) that is contained in the light-sensitive cells of the rod type in the retina of the eye; it functions in the eye's adaptation to dim light. When the eye is exposed to bright light, the rhodopsin bleaches; after an interval of darkness, it returns to its former purple-red color”, and are indicated in treatment of poor night vision, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataracts. With Holly –Bilberry – Hazel triad becomes an effective polycrest complex for cataracts management and to prevent aging of the eyes.


Infectious Diseases:

'P' Antibacterial Antistreptococcic, Antiviral Herpes virus I Simplex & II Genital, Influenza, and Vaccinia Viruses. Kills or inhibits the growth of funguses, yeasts, and bacteria. It also kills protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. Possess antibiotic properties due to their role in disrupting a specific stage of the bacterial DNA replication process.Hyperoside is a known phytochemical to be most efficacious in mental relaxation. Anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of hyperoside. Quinic-Acid (antiaging acid): Choleretic. Quinic acid is used as an astringent. This acid is a versatile chiral starting material for the synthesis of new pharmaceuticals. A new medicament for the treatment of influenza A and B strains called Tamiflu has been successfully developed and launched into the market recently.


Cardio Vascular System:

'P' Vasoprotective – Anti-Edema Anticoagulant, Coumarin content in bilberry may increase PT/PTT, Inhibits platelet aggregation. Prevents thrombosis and strokes, Reverses Angina, Prevents Atherosclerosis from cholesterol build up, Reinforces Vascular Walls, and therefore improves the microcirculation of the capillaries blood flow and varicose veins. Good in heart failure. Reduces the level of cholesterol and triglyceride.. The Anthocyanosides are effective in promoting and intensifying arteriolar rhythmic diameter changes which aid in the redistribution of microvascular blood flow and interstitial fluid formation.


Hematology Oncology:

'A' Bilberry can inhibit human leukemia cell and human colon carcinoma cell growth through the induction of apoptosis antimelanogenic. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and stimulation of vascular prostacyclin. Thrombocytosis. Ferulic acid seems to reduce the risk of many cancers of the stomach, colon, breast, prostate, liver, lung and tongue. Resveratrol also has anti-inflammatory properties. Yet another hypothesis is that resveratrol is able to stimulate sirtuin SIRT1. These proteins are hypothesized to promote longevity, and they may also explain the known longevity-enhancing effects of calorie restriction. The amount of resveratrol in bilberry is less than that of Grape Vine buds which is the resveratrol polycrest.


Immunological System:

'A' General Immunostimulant.


Musculoskeletal System:

'A' COX-2-Inhibitor, Arthrosis, Osteoporosis, Fibromyalgia.


Renal – Uro Genital System:

'A' Diuretic, Cystitis, Nephritis, UTI, Prostate Adenoma. Urinary Lithiasis. Helps prevent urinary tract infections.Bilberry has the potential to stop the development of kidney stones because of the presence of Quinic acid, which is found in abundance in bilberry.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:

'A' Intestinal Disinfectant. Diarrhea, Dysentery, Colitis, Crohn's disease, Gallstones, Hemorrhoids, Prevents ulcers, Celiac Disease, Apthous / Stomatitis / Ulcers take: sublingual and hold in the mouth. Helps regulate pH in the digestive tract. Promotes efficient digestive function. Helps breakdown fatty foods and increases appetite. . Succinic acid infused into rat colons significantly inhibited colonic cell proliferation andreduced crypt size. These results clearly indicated the inhibitory effects of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation.
References: Akiko INAGAKI1), Hirofumi ICHIKAWA2) and Takashi SAKATA1).
1) School of Science and Engineering, Ishinomaki Senshu University.
2) The Second Department of Surgery, Tohoku University School of Medicine (August 16, 2006).


Endocrine System:

'A' Diabetes normalizes blood sugar level. Effects against Chromosomal Damage Induced by X-rays. Estrogen like.


Dermatology Allergy:

'A' Angioma, Capillary Fragility, Hematomas. Bilberry normalizes capillary collagen thickness. Inhibit Melanogenesis by affecting tyrosinase activity. Used in the treatment of disorders of hyperpigmentation such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne, trauma, allergic reactions, infections, injuries, phototoxic reactions, reactions to medications, reactions to cosmetics, and inflammatory diseases. Natural Antihistamine. Antiasthmatic. Professor Ronald W. Pero and colleagues, while working at the department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University in Southern Sweden, discovered that an ammonium-chelated form of quinic acid halts day-to-day random DNA-damage and enhances DNA repair to such an extent that it may play a major role in combating degenerative disease and the effects of ageing. Syringic-Acid: Allelopathic; Antioxidant; Antiperoxidant; Antiradicular; Ubiquiot ; Mold Inhibitor.


Neurology:

'A' Bell’s Palsy.


Enviromental Medicine:

Antidote Aluminum, Cadmium, Lead, Paraquat.