Cowberry – Vaccinium Vitis Idaea

Family: Ericaceae

Part Used:

Young Shoots

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Vaccinium vitis-idaea, native to the circumboreal forests of northern Eurasia and North America, is a small evergreen shrub that bears edible fruit. It typically reaches 4 to 16 inches in height and is in leaf throughout the year. Its bell-shaped, white flowers are produced from May to June, and its red, acidic seeds ripen from August to October

Abstracts of Published Research on Cowberry – Vaccinium Vitis Idaea:

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 29
Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and Hybrid Bilberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L.) Leaves.Hokkanen J, Mattila S, Jaakola L, Pirttilä AM, Tolonen A2.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;87(6):479-92
Evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of selected medicinal plant extracts from the Canadian boreal forest used to treat symptoms of diabetes: part IIHarbilas D, Martineau LC, Harris CS, Adeyiwola-Spoor DC, Saleem A, Lambert J, Caves D, Johns T, Prentki M, Cuerrier A, Arnason JT, Bennett SA, Haddad PS3.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Urinary Excretion of the Main Anthocyanin in Lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea ), Cyanidin 3-O-Galactoside, and Its MetabolitesLehtonen HM, Rantala M, Suomela JP, Viitanen M, Kallio H4.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:123-5
Berries as chemopreventive dietary constituents--a mechanistic approach with the ApcMin/+ mouseMutanen M, Pajari AM, Paivarinta E, Misikangas M, Rajakangas J, Marttinen M, Oikarinen S5.

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 14;56(9):3016-23. Epub 2008 Apr 16
Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitroMcDougall GJ, Ross HA, Ikeji M, Stewart D6.

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):627-9. Epub 2008 Jan 23
Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and diseaseSeeram NP7.

Acta Biochim Pol. 2007;54(4):733-40. Epub 2007 Oct 31
Distribution of triterpene acids and their derivatives in organs of cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plantSzakiel A, Mroczek A8.

Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):18-32
Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogensNohynek LJ, Alakomi HL, Kähkönen MP, Heinonen M, Helander IM, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Puupponen-Pimiä RH9.

Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):13-7
Bioavailability of quercetin from berries and the dietErlund I, Freese R, Marniemi J, Hakala P, Alfthan G10.

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 20;53(8):3156-66
Antioxidant activity in lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and its inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activationWang SY, Feng R, Bowman L, Penhallegon R, Ding M, Lu Y11.

J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98(4):991-1000
Berry phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogensPuupponen-Pimiä R, Nohynek L, Hartmann-Schmidlin S, Kähkönen M, Heinonen M, Määttä-Riihinen K, Oksman-Caldentey KM12.

J Urol. 2005 Jan;173(1):217-20
Bacteriuria management and urological evaluation of patients with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder: a multicenter surveyElliott SP, Villar R, Duncan B13.

J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 1;52(24):7419-24
Inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation in liposomes by berry phenolicsViljanen K, Kylli P, Kivikari R, Heinonen M14.

J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 15;51(2):502-9
Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberriesZheng W, Wang SY15.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;53(2):187-91
Antimicrobial activity of tannin components from Vaccinium vitis-idaea LHo KY, Tsai CC, Huang JS, Chen CP, Lin TC, Lin CC16.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;51(9):1075-8
Antioxidant activity of tannin components from Vaccinium vitis-idaea LHo KY, Huang JS, Tsai CC, Lin TC, Hsu YF, Lin CC17.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Oct;48(2):61-76
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosisTunón H, Olavsdotter C, Bohlin L18.

Vopr Virusol. 1993 Jul-Aug;38(4):170-3
The antiviral action of medicinal plant extracts in experimental tick-borne encephalitisFokina GI, Roĭkhel' VM, Frolova MP, Frolova TV, Pogodina VV


B, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mb, Mn, Mg, Na, P, Se, Si, Su, Ti, Zn

Vitamins and Minerals:

C, Calcium.

Phytochemical Constituents:

(+)-Catechin, Arbutin, Ascorbic-Acid, Avicularin, Benzoic-Acid, Beta-Carotene, Caffeic-Acid, Citric-Acid, Epicatechin, Fructose, Gallic-Acid, Glucose, Hydroquinone, Hyperoside, Isoquercitrin, Kaempferol, Lycopene, Malic-Acid, N-Nonacosane, Pectin, Proanthocyanidin A-1, Quercetin, Salicylic-Acid, Salidroside, Tannin, Ursolic-Acid, Zeaxanthin.
Proanthocyanidin A-1, a compound isolated from Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Contains small amounts of estrogen. The chemical composition is also similar to Uva ursi, but the arbutin concentration is much lower. It also contains chinic acid which is quinic acid, two flavones, isoquecitin and hyperosid and different esters of arbutin with acetic acid or caffeic acid. The concentration of tannins is much lower in Vaccinum vitis-idaea than in Uva ursi and due to this, it is well tolerated by the stomach.

FLAVONOIDS: Anthocyanins, Flavonols, Cathecins

PHENOLIC ACIDS: Hydroxycinnamic acids

TANNINS: Proanthocyanidins, Ellagitannins

Proanthocyanidin A-1, a compound isolated from Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea. Contains small amounts of estrogen. The chemical composition is also similar to Uva ursi, but the arbutin concentration is much lower. It also contains chinic acid which is quinic acid, two flavones, isoquercirtin and hyperoside and different esters of arbutin with acetic acid or caffeic acid. The concentration of tannins is much lower in Vaccinum vitis-idaea than in Uva ursi and due to this, it is well tolerated by the stomach.

Tyrosol is a phenolic antioxidant and is a derivative of phenethyl alcohol. As an antioxidant, tyrosol can protect cells against injury due to oxidation. Although it is not as potent as other antioxidants present in olive oil, its higher concentration and good bioavailability indicate that it may have an important overall effect. This effect may contribute significantly to the health benefits. Recently Tyrosol present in some plants is also shown to be cardioprotective. Samson et al. has shown that tyrosol-treated animals showed significant increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and FOXO3a. In addition, tyrosol also induced the expression of longevity protein SIRT1 in the heart after myocardial infarction in a rat MI model. In conclusion these findings suggest that tyrosol induces myocardial protection against ischemia related stress by inducing survival and longevity proteins that may be considered as anti-aging therapy for the heart.


Do not use in elevated estrogen where endometriosis or adenomyosis is present.

Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:

Polycrest all of bipolar action!

Most Powerful Antioxidants

GI – Digestive:

Anti-inflammatory, Intestinal Disinfectant. Regulates the peristaltic action of the colon. Detoxifies & repairs the intestinal mucosa. Bipolardiphasic action Inert Colon Stimulant in Constipation or Sedative and antispasmodic in Diarrhea. IBS, Colitis, Colic, Duodenum & Peptic Ulcers, Diverticulosis, Pseudomembranous colitis post antibiotic therapy.The tannins in Vaccinium Vitis Idaea have antibacterial effects against Helicobacter pylori (Annuk et al.,1999). Against stress-induced gastric lesions. Chemopreventive activity against colon cancer.

Cardio Vascular System:

Degeneration of vascular walls, Viral Pericarditis, Atherosclerosis. Arterial Hyaline, Opposes Aging Decrepitude. Plasma Triglyceride (TG) was decreased by 39% with the young shoots of Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea. Prove potentially useful for the treatment of dyslipidaemiae associated with impaired Triglycerides-rich lipoprotein clearance.

References: Cignarella A, Nastasi M, Cavalli E, Puglisi L (1996) Novel lipid-lowering properties of Vaccinium leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate. Thromb Res 1; 84(5):311-22.

Pulmonary System:

Old pulmonary emboli, active on arterioles. Fungal Endophytes , exhibit antimycobacterial activity.

Renal – Uro Genital System:

Detoxifies the Bladder, Cystitis, Prostatitis, Nephritis, Urinary Antiseptic. Urinary disinfectant to clear glomeruli, combats oxalic & calcium renal calculi, recurring colibacillinum infections.

Musculoskeletal System:

Osteoporosis, Polyarthritis. Facilitates the absorption of calcium.

Ob Gyn/Reproductive System:

Action on the ovaries, Uterine Fibroids, Female Senescence, Post Menopausal, Hot Flashes, Regulates menstrual cycle.

Immunology – Hematology – Oncology:

Normalize Phosphatase Acids. Quinic acid (QA), which Cowberry young shoots contains significantly increased the number of spleen cells. The spleen is an important member of the body's immune and lymphatic system. Red pulp corresponds to the sinuses which are usually filled with red blood cells. The white pulp shows white nodules, called Malpighian corpuscles. Under the microscope, these areas correspond to lymphoid follicles rich in B-cells and the periarteriolar T-cell-rich lymphoid sheaths (PALS), rich in T-cells.A-type Proanthocyanidin a potent antioxidant protective agent against oxidative stress and apoptosis in human platelets. Potent free radical scavenging activities for DPPH•, ROO•, •OH, and O2•- radicals. Antioxidant activity; activator protein-1; apoptosis; nuclear factor-κB; mitogen-activated protein kinase; neoplastic transformation; Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea. Chemopreventive components against intestinal tumorigenesis. Modulating ß-Catenin Signaling in the Tumor and Transcription in the Mucosa. The effects seen may rather be a result of a mixture of compounds acting in synergy than an effect of a single active substance.

References: Marjo Misikangas 1, Anne-Maria Pajari 1, Essi Päivärinta 1, Seija I. Oikarinen 1, Johanna Rajakangas 1, Maija Marttinen 1, Heidi Tanayama 1, Riitta Törrönen 2 and Marja Mutanen 1.
1 Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology (Nutrition), University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
2 Food and Health Research Centre, Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Endocrineal System:

Thyroid Adenoma & Diabetic Senile Gangrene Researchers have reported that Chlorogenic acid possess pharmacologically relevant health promoting properties, particularly in lowering plasma glucose and in treatment of diabetes. Among more than a dozen positive physiological actions of chlorogenic acid, the plasma glucose lowering properties are the most impressive. Juvenile insulin-dependent diabetes Type 1 and Adult-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes Type 2. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which readily form and accumulate with sustained hyperglycemia, contribute to the development of diabetic complications and, as such, are considered a potential therapeutic target. Catechin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside Inhibition of AGE formation.

Three Strategies for Diabetic Treatment
The primary objective in the treatment of diabetes is to lower abnormally high levels of blood sugar and to stabilize it at normal levels. Three therapeutic strategies are generally used to achieve this:
1. Reduce glucose absorption from the diet
2. Reduce glucose synthesis in the liver
3. Accelerate glucose metabolism

Ideally, the most effective strategy would be to achieve all three at the same time.

The Triple Solution of Caffeoylquinic and Caffeic Acids:
Recent research has identified two unique natural compounds that appear to do just that. The two compounds are: caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acids. New studies suggest that taken together these two unique compounds may:

1. Help reduce dietary glucose absorption in the intestines,
2. Help reduce glucose synthesis in the liver, and
3. Speed up the metabolism of glucose – simultaneously

To fully appreciate the importance of this new development a brief explanation of glucose biochemistry is essential to understand the context and full value of this discovery:
  • The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) plays a major role in the homeostatic regulation of blood glucose, which is responsible for the formation of glucose in our body. Chlorogenic acid was recently discovered to specifically inhibit the activity of this key enzyme.
  • Inhibition of G6P activity in the liver results in a reduction of hepatic glucose production and may be useful for the reduction of the abnormally high rates of hepatic glucose output often found in non-insulin-dependent diabetes (Arion et al. 1997; Hemmerle et al. 1997).
  • Chemically, chlorogenic acid is an ester formed between caffeic and quinic acids. It is interesting to note that both chlorogenic and caffeic are involved in the glucose reduction in our body. Research of Dr. Welsch and his colleges at Rutgers University reveals that the glucose transport across brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the small intestine were reduced to 80% in the presence of chlorogenic acid and 30-40% in the presence of caffeic acid, while treatment with gallic acid had no effect (Welsch et al. 1989). These results suggest that both chlorogenic and caffeic acids are involved in the regulation of glucose level including the unique ability to inhibit dietary glucose absorption in the intestines. Recent research of Cheng and Liu (2000) also indicates that the presence of caffeic acid accelerated the metabolism of glucose, which can reduce the total glucose concentration circulated in blood plasma. Results of Hsu et al. (2000) studies provide further evidence that caffeic is involved in the reduction of plasma glucose in diabetic rats.

References 2005 Dr. Zakir Ramazanov.


Tannins, Epicatechin and Catechin from Vaccinium vitis-idaea could be used for treatment of periodontal diseases since they haveantimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Ho et al., 2001).


Dermatomyositis (non suppurative infection of the skin). Necrosis of the extremities toes and fingers. Prevention of premature ageing.


Positive effect on eyesight clear the toxic chemicals and free radicals in retina; promote the generation of retinal anthapurpurin; improve the night vision capability; help eyes adapt the change of strong and weak light; maintain eyesight; strengthen capillary; improve the blood circulation.