Dogwood – Cornus Sanguinea


Family: Cornaceae
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Part Used:
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Buds

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Cornussanguinea is a deciduous multi-stemmed shrub that is native to North America and grows 6 to 15 feet tall. It’s simple, smooth-edged opposite leaves have prominent lateral veins that curve toward the tip. Unlike many dogwoods, the Cornus sanguinea produces no large, showy bracts. Its scented, white flowers are small and flat-topped and are in blossom from May to June. Autumn ushers in the ripening of its purplish black fruit, and the grey green twigs and stems seen on a mature Cornus sanguinea turn blood red in fall.

The wood of the shrub is highly prized for its toughness and hardness. It has been used for making small items such as tool handles and shuttles of looms. The flexibility of its young stems makes it of excellent use in basketry. Other uses include charcoal, dye, fuel, hedge, oil, wood.

Phytosociology: The red flamboyant color of this vascular plant is analogous to the human cardiovascular and blood systems. The common names of the Cornus Sanguinea include the “Blood twig dogwood.”


Abstracts of Published Research on Dogwood – Cornus Sanguinea:

J Med Food. 2009 Aug;12(4):788-95.
Anti-Inflammatory and analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of corni fructus in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cellsSung YH, Chang HK, Kim SE, Kim YM, Seo JH, Shin MC, Shin MS, Yi JW, Shin DH, Kim H, Kim CJ2.

Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(4):735-46. Links
Protective effect of ursolic acid from Cornus officinalis on the hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of HEI-OC1 auditory cellsYu HH, Hur JM, Seo SJ, Moon HD, Kim HJ, Park RK, You YO


Oligo-elements:

Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

Calcium, Inositol, Proto-Vitamin A. Salicylates (SA)


Phytochemical Constituents:

5,5'-di-alfa-fuealdehydedimethylether, 7-dehydrologanin, Auxins (IAA), Benzyl-Cinnamate, Beta-Carotene, Beta-Sitosterol, Betulinic-Acid, Brassinosteroids (BR), Comptothin B, Cornin, Cornusin A, B, Cyanidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside, Cyanidin,Cytokinins (CK), Delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside, Elemicin, Eugenol, Furfural5-hydroxy-metylfurfural,Gallic-Acid, Gemin D Ellagitannins, Gibberellins (GA), Isoasarone, Isobutyl-Alcohol, Isoterchebin, Isochebulinterchebin, Jasmonic acid (JA), Kaempferol, Lignin, Loganin, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), 7-O-methyl Morroniside, N-Nonacosane, Malic-Acid, Oleanolic-Acid, Palmitic-Acid, Quercetin, Salicylates (SA), Salicylic-Acid, Sweroside, Tannic-Acid, Tannin, Tellmagrandin I, II, Trans-linalool oxide,Verbenalin, Ursolic Acid.

The three anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3′,5′-di-O-β-glucopyranoside
1. delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside
2. and cyanidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside
3. and the 3-O-β-galactopyranosides of delphinidin
4. and cyanidin (were isolated from Dogwood buds)

Contains a variety of chemical compounds that contribute to its medicinal properties. These include tannic acid, gallic acid, resin, gum, lignin, and, Potassium. The leaves and buds also contain salicylic acid. Contains natural cyclooxygenase inhibitors and methods for inhibiting pain and inflammation. Gallic acid Extracts are used as an astringent (causes contraction of muscles/skin), and a febrifuge (reduces fever). Morroniside; 7-O-methyl morroniside; sweroside; loganin; malic acid; tartaric acid; proto-vitamin A; tellmagrandin I,II; isochebulinterchebin; cornusin A,B; betulic acid, beta-sitosterol; palmitic acid, benzyl cinnamate,0.2%; isobutyl alcohol,9.6%; isoamyl alcohol,9.7%; trans-linalool oxide,3.3%; elemicin,3.2%; furfural,9.2%; methyl eugenol,7.4%; isoasarone; beta-phenylethyl alcohol; cornuside; 7-dehydrologanin; comptothin A; comptothin B; gemin D; 5-hydroxy-metylfurfural; 5,5'-di-alfa-fuealdehydedimethylether; Chemicals & Nutrients: beta-Carotene, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Irodiod ghycoside (morroniside, loganin), cornin, saponin, tannin, ursolic acid, tartanic acid, sugars, Vit. A. Contains natural cyclooxygenase inhibitors and methods for inhibiting pain and inflammation. The extract provides a greater cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitory activities than cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibitory activity; and (b) a pharmaceutically acceptable diluents or excipient. The research shows dogwood to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, April 2002, pages 2519–2523).


Contraindications:

Do not use in hypothyroidism since it is anti-thyroxine T-4. Do not use with synthetic anti-coagulants or Plavix this is its replacement without the associated long term use of Plavix which should be limited to 6 months duration dogwood does not pose such problem with long term use.


Plant Stem Cells Indications:

Plavix Alternative!


Hematology Oncology:

'A' (Bipolar action) Anticoagulant when heparin resistant test is high, and equally Antihemorraging for cranial-abdominal-thoracic cavities, due to its bipolar actions Note: on hemorrhaging especially when not possible to operate, it will arrest hemorrhages caused by excessive anticoagulant therapy. DIC is a disorder of the "clotting cascade." It results in depletion of clotting factors in the blood. Dogwood reduces blood clots and prevents thrombosis, and works on the platelets as in Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate). Stimulates Bone Marrow production. Chemoprevention against hepatocellular carcinoma, anti-neoplastic effects. Will also prevent in cancer associated predisposition to pulmonary emboli. Increase SOD activity of blood cells, counteract lipid peroxide. Morroniside an iridoid glycoside : Antioxidant; protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity.

In addition, the percentage of cells undergoing H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis was decreased, dose dependently, in the presence of morroniside. These results suggest that morroniside has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxic processes. Neuroblastoma is the most common extra cranial solid cancer in childhood and the most common cancer in infancy, with an annual incidence of about 650 new cases per year in the US. The cell line SH-SY5Y is a third generation neuroblastoma, cloned from SH-SY5, which is from SH-SY, which is from SK-N-SH.
References: Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr 17; Authors: Wang W, Sun F, An Y, Ai H, Zhang L, Huang W, Li L


Cardio Vascular System:

'A' Detoxifies the heart & arteries, Arteritis of the lower limbs. Regulates heart beat, prevents tachycardia and extrasystole. Improve heart functions, boost contractility of heart and cardiac output. Cicatrizing of the Cardiac Muscle. Cardiac Insufficiency, Thrombotic Coronaritis, Senile Heart, Pre-Infarctus prevention, Horton Temporal Arteritis, Arteritis of lower limbs, Arteritis from cigarette smokers, Atherosclerosis, Antithrombotic, Necrosis of tissues, Buerger’s disease, Raynaud Syndrome. Improve heart functions, boost contractility of heart and cardiac output. Dogwood buds released strong ability to boost body's Anti-Stimulation effects, increase anti-hypoxia and anti-aging ability of mice, boost memory. Increase SOD activity of blood cells, counteract lipid peroxide. Ethanol extracts shows effects to lowering blood cholesterols, lowering triglyceride, cholesterin, prevent arteriosclerosis. Used in post-stent surgery, to maintain coronary circulation, bud remains effective over a long period of use. For this purpose you may need to use 30 drops 3 x a day to achieve effective result.
The protective effect of Delphinidin on endothelial cell apoptosis through NO-guanylyl cyclase-dependent pathway is reported here. The maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in endothelial cells may account for the protective effects of delphinidin.

References: Br J Pharmacol. 2003 July; 139(6): 1095–1102.


Endocrine System:

Polycrest Thyroid. P Plummer's disease: Toxic multinodular goiter also called Parry's disease. Basedow Disease, Thyroid Goiter, dysendocrinia (unspecified endocrine disorder). Hyperthyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism, tremors, palpitations, tachycardia, weight loss, exophthalmia, and associated hyperactivity. Will detoxify and strengthen the Thyroid Gland. Diabetes lower plasma glucose by increasing insulin secretion. Low sperm count, nocturnal emission, premature ejaculation, impotence. Erectile Dysfunction. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of dogwood buds has relationships with pituitary-adrenal gland boosting function.


Environmental Medicine:

'A' Detoxifies Carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine poisoning alleviate liver tissue necrosis and relates splenomegaly, and increase the content of hepatic glycogen. High exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. These effects can occur after ingestion or breathing carbon tetrachloride, and possibly from exposure to the skin. The liver is especially sensitive to carbon tetrachloride because it enlarges and cells are damaged or destroyed. Kidneys also are damaged, causing a buildup of wastes in the blood. If exposure is low and brief, the liver and kidneys can repair the damaged cells and function normally again. Effects of carbon tetrachloride are more severe in persons who drink large amounts of alcohol. It is widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent. Morroniside (iridoid glycoside) and Sweroside (secoiridoid glycosides) which are phytochemicals present in Dogwood buds have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxic processes from exposure to substances used in chemotherapy, radiation treatment, drug therapies, certain drug abuse, and organ transplants, as well as exposure to heavy metals, certain foods and food additives, pesticides, industrial and/or cleaning solvents, cosmetics, and some naturally occurring substances. Sweroside can significantly counteract carbon tetrachloride CCl4- or D-galactosamine GALN-induced acute liver damages in both mice and rats, reduce ALT, AST, and ALP, and prevent splenomegaly caused by GALN poisoning cytoprotective effects.


Renal – Uro Genital System:

P Gemin D (Hexahydroxydiphenic esters – Ellagitannins): Xanthineoxidase inhibitor (reduces the production of uric acid) making Dogwood excellent for treating Gout. 'A' Nephrosis, Nocturia, Incontinence, Geriatric bedwetting, Erectile Dysfunction, Impotence, Premature Ejaculation.


Immunological System:

'A' Different effects on immune systems identified for different grade of dogwood compositions, lowering lick up functions of reticuloendothelial system, inhibition on Delayed-type Hypersensitivity caused by sheep red blood cells SRBC or dinitrochlorobenzene DNCB, inhibiting activation of T helper cell lymphoma. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds. Dogwood isoflavones and ursolic acid shows strong inhibition effects on lymphopoiesis, transform, inhibition lymphokine-activated killer LAK birth and Interleukin-2, strong antagonize to reprobation effects of apparatus replant, boost formation of Serum Antibody IgG and IgM. Lymphopoiesis constitutes 5-20% of the bone marrow cells. The lymphocytes - as all hemopoietic cells are derived for the stem cell, which differentiates into cells common for the two lymphocytic series (B and T-cells). The cell divides into precursors pro-B and pre-T cells, which develop into the stage of the mature B- and T-lymphocyte. After antigen exposition the mature lymphocytes differentiate into intensive proliferative lymphocytes. They are capable of synthesis immunoglobulins and immunological memory cells. Excellent for night sweats.


Infectious Diseases:

A Antibacterial, Antifungal Staphylococcus epidermis, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and dysentery bacillus. Gemin D (Hexahydroxydiphenic esters – Ellagitannins): Retrovirus protease inhibitor. Cornusin A, B: Condensed and hydrolysable tannins demonstrated anti-HIV effect. Sweroside a secoiridoid glycoside: Antibacillus; Antibacterial; Antiescherichic; Antihepatotic; Antiseptic; Antistaphylococcic; Antiosteoporotic; Artemicide; Hepatoprotective; Pesticide. Sweroside has been developed into an anti-hepatitis drug. Verbenalin an iridoidglycoside: verbenalin, a known smooth muscle relaxant. Is known to have mild effect on the involuntary nervous system, especially thatgoverning the digestive system.


Pulmonary System:

'A' Post-Traumatic Thoracic Hemorrhaging, Hemo-pneumothorax, Intercostals Ribs Fractures.


OB GYN/ Reproductive System:

'A' For menopause and hot flashes. A women that is nervous and bitterly resentful of hormonal changes. Menorrhagia, Uterine Bleeding. Verbenalin in dogwood buds has lactation-promoting properties as well. P Factor V Leiden thrombophilia especially in pregnancy is excellent since it is Bipolar in action and does not risk causing a miscarriage as it can occur with Heparin.


Musculoskeletal System:

'A' Anti-inflammatory, Back and knee pain. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitory activities. Osteoporosis.


Neurological/Nervous System:

'A' dizziness, shock and trauma. Has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxic processes. Elemicin similar in chemical makeup to MDMA. Elemicin is another potent psychoactive. Scientists believe that once the substance enters the body it's converted to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ecstasy. Neurotoxicity can result from exposure to substances used in chemotherapy, radiation treatment, drug therapies, certain drug abuse, and organ transplants, as well as exposure to heavy metals, certain foods and food additives, pesticides, industrial and/or cleaning solvents, cosmetics, and some naturally occurring substances.


ENT:

'A' Epistaxis, Tinnitus.


Ophthalmology:

'A' Blurred vision.