Hedge Maple – Acer Campestre


Family: Aceraceae
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Part Used:
Hedge-Maple-bud_2.jpg


Buds

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

This moderately sized, deciduous, hedge maple tree is native to Europe, the Near East, and Africa. The Acer campestre slowly matures to 30 feet tall by 30 feet wide under optimum conditions. Clusters of small, yellow-green flowers appear on its round, densely branched crown in early spring just before the arrival of its leaves. Its dark green foliage is multilobed and alternate and is densely arranged along the twigs. It is about 3 inches both long and wide with veins radiating from their centers. The leaves exude a varnish-like sticky substance known as honeydew (which is the excretion of the aphids that live on the leaves). The fruits of the Acer campestre begin as two small green samaras that are joined together and have widely divergent and prominent wings. They mature into oval, greenish-brown fruits by autumn and do not attract wildlife. The fine-grained, beautifully veined wood of the Acer campestre is tough, elastic, hard to split, and is seldom attacked by insects; however, the small size of this tree renders it generally unavailable for timber. When available, it is especially valuable for cabinetmaking as well as for crafting musical instruments. Its wood also makes an excellent fuel and a high quality charcoal. The leaves and young shoots are useful as winter provender for cattle. Most of the maples yield a saccharine juice from the trunk, branches, and leaves.

Phytosociology: The hard wood of the Acer campestre is analogous to the hardening phenomenon that occurs in the body. The extract of this plant is useful in cholelithiasis, as it breaks down the stones in order to prevent biliary blockage.

Bach flower applications: This remedy is for jealousy, envy, suspicion, desire for revenge, spitefulness or hatred, and is thus needed whenever these feelings are apparent. The positive quality of this remedy is forgiveness and love. These applications also apply to Plant Stem Cell Therapy.


Abstracts of Published Research on Hedge Maple – Acer Campestre:

1. Phytother Res. 2009 May 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and b-ketoacyl-ACP reductase by different species of maple leaf extracts and tannic acid.Wu D, Wu XD, You XF, Ma XF, Tian WX.


Oligo-elements:

Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Se, Ti, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

A, B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, Calcium, Folacin.


Phytochemical Constituents:

(+)-Catechin, (–)-Epicatechin, 1-O-galloyl-D-glucose,1-O-galloyl-L-rhamnose, Allantoin, Amyrin acetate, Alpha Hydroxy Acids, Citric Acid,Auxins Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), Brassinosteroids (BR), Cleomiscosin A, Cleomiscosin C. Cytokinins (CK), Ellagic Acid, Ethyl Gallate, Ethylm-digallate, Flavonoids, Fumaric Acid, Gallic Acid, Gibberellins (GA), Jasmonic acid (JA), Kaempferol 3-O-D-Glucoside, Kaempferol 3-O- D-Galactoside, Kaempferol 3-O- L-Rhamnoside, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, Linoleic Acid, Malic Acid, M-Digallate, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Methyl Gallate, Monounsaturated Fat, Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Phenols, Phytosterols, Polyunsaturated Fat, Quercetin 3-O-D-glucoside, Quercetin 3-O-L-Rhamnoside, Quercetin 3-O-Rhamnoglucoside,Salicylates (SA), Saturated Fat, Sitosterol glucoside-3'-O-hexacosanoicate, Succinic Acid, Sucrose, SOD, Tannins, 24-dihydroxytaraxer-14-ene.

A novel acylated sterol glucoside along with four known compounds; amyrin acetate, 24-dihydroxytaraxer-14-ene, cleomiscosin A, cleomiscosin C. Sitosterol glucoside-3'-O-hexacosanoicate based on chemical and spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the novel compound was found to exhibit a significant inhibitory effect (IC value of 0.2 µM) on the complement system activated by the classical pathway. Acylated Sterol Glucoside, Sitosterol glucoside- 3'-O-hexacosanoicate, Anti-complement activity. The complement system plays a significant role in host defense. The complement system can be activated by one of several cascade mechanisms, including the classical pathway (CP), alternative pathway (AP), or the MBL/MASP (mannan binding lectin/MBL-associated serine protease) pathway. Thirty odd complement fragments comprise the complement system, including proteolytic pro-enzymes, non-enzymatic components that form functional complexes, co-factors, regulators, and receptors (Ember and Hugli, 1997). The proteolytic cascade allows for considerable amplification since each proteinase molecule activated at one step can, in turn, generate multiple copies of an activate denzymelaterin the cascade, which then cleaves non-enzymatic compounds, such as C3, C4, and C5. The larger fragments derived from C3, C4, and C5 (i.e. C3b, C4b, and C5b) are involved in biologic effector functions, such as opsonization, phagocytosis, and immuno modulation. However, the smaller molecules, C3a, C4a, and C5a, called anaphylatoxins, induce the release of mediators from mast cells and lymphocytes, which can cause a variety of inflammatory diseases and can be fatal if occurring after organ transplantation (Abbas et al1997). Therefore, modulation of complement activity should prove beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Previous phytochemical studies on this plant resulted in the isolation of some flavonol glycosides and phenolic compounds, along with their anti-HIV-1 integrase activities (Kim et al 1998 a). In our search to find anti-complement active compounds originating from the natural plants, we investigated the constituents of the leaf and twig of Acer Campestre.
Phenolic glycoside, Cytotoxicity has been used in Korean traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatic disorders (Ahn, 1998). The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against five cultured human cancer cell lines. This paper describes the isolation, structure determination and cytotoxic activity of these compounds. The cytotoxic activity of each compound against five cultured human tumor cells was examined at the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology; A549 (non small cell lung adenocarcinoma), SK-OV-3 (ovarian cancer cells), SK-MEL-2 (skin melanoma), MCF7 (breast; epithelial; pleural effusion adenocarcinoma) and HCT15 (colon cancer cells)

A new neolignan glycoside, (7R,8R)-7,8-dihydro-9'-hydroxyl-3'-methoxyl-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 9'-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from the leaves of Acer Campestre along with, (7R,8R)-7,8-dihydro-9'-hydroxyl-3'-methoxyl-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-O-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyloxy-3methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol(2), schizandriside (3), lyoniresinol (4), berchemol (5), (-)-pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), hecogenin (7), chlorogenic acid (8) and neochlorogenic acid (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. . The absolute configuration of compounds 1 was established by its CD spectrum. The antibacterial activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated.

The trace mineral manganese is an essential cofactor in a number of enzymes important in energy production and antioxidant defenses. The key oxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase disarms free radicals produced within the mitochondria (the energy production factories within our cells), requires manganese. Zinc is needed for the proper function of endothelial cells and helps to prevent the endothelial damage caused by oxidized LDL cholesterol and other oxidized fats. (The endothelium is the inner lining of blood vessels). Contains also the antioxidant SOD.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Complement System, Gallbladder and Pancreas Agent!


Hematology Oncology:

'P' non small cell lung adenocarcinoma, ovarian cancer, skin melanoma, breast epithelial, pleural effusion adenocarcinoma, colon cancer.



Immunological System:

'P' regulatory effect on the complement system. Auto immune conditions. Antiinflammatory for such conditions. Increases CD-4 T-Helper cells and C-D19 B-cells. A novel acylated sterol glucoside along with four known compounds; amyrin acetate, 24-dihydroxytaraxer-14-ene, cleomiscosin A, cleomiscosin C. Sitosterol glucoside-3'-O-hexacosanoicate based on chemical and spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the novel compound was found to exhibit a significant inhibitory effect (IC value of 0.2 µM) on the complement system activated by the classical pathway. Acylated Sterol Glucoside, Sitosterol glucoside- 3'-O-hexacosanoicate, Anti-complement activity. The complement system plays a significant role in host defense. The complement system can be activated by one of several cascade mechanisms, including the classical pathway (CP), alternative pathway (AP), or the MBL/MASP (mannan binding lectin/MBL-associated serine protease) pathway. Thirty odd complement fragments comprise the complement system, including proteolytic pro-enzymes, non-enzymatic components that form functional complexes, co-factors, regulators, and receptors (Ember and Hugli, 1997).

The proteolytic cascade allows for considerable amplification since each proteinase molecule activated at one step can, in turn, generate multiple copies of an activate denzymelaterin the cascade, which then cleaves non-enzymatic compounds, such as C3, C4, and C5. The larger fragments derived from C3, C4, and C5 (i.e. C3b, C4b, and C5b) are involved in biologic effector functions, such as opsonization, phagocytosis, and immuno modulation. However, the smaller molecules, C3a, C4a, and C5a, called anaphylatoxins, induce the release of mediators from mast cells and lymphocytes, which can cause a variety of inflammatory diseases and can be fatal if occurring after organ transplantation (Abbas et al1997). Therefore, modulation of complement activity should prove beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Previous phytochemical studies on this plant resulted in the isolation of some flavonol glycosides and phenolic compounds, along with their anti-HIV-1 integrase activities (Kim et al 1998 a). Cleomiscosin A C (a coumarino lignoid) with is present in Hedge Maple – Acer Campestre (buds) exhibits a significant inhibitory effect on the complement system. Acylated Sterol Glucoside, Sitosterol glucoside- 3'-O-hexacosanoicate: Anti-complement activity. Beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Infectious Diseases:

'P' Antiviral, Antibacterial, Antifungal. Inhibits the growth of many different type of viruses: Hepatitis A B & C and all forms of Herpes, Chicken Pox, Epstein Barr Virus, HIV, Cytomegalovirus, Bell’s Palsy. No longer is this plant considered a polycrest antiviral. Indirect antiviral by regulating the immune system.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:

'P' Biliary Dyskinesia, Biliary & Gallbladder sludge and stones. Liver and Gallbladder Detoxifier. Lowers cholesterol.Inflammatory bowel diseases. Chronic Diarrhea.


Cardio Vascular System:

'P' helps to prevent the endothelial damage caused by oxidized LDL cholesterol and other oxidized fats. Atherosclerosis, Arteriosclerosis, Reduces Cholesterol & Triglycerides, Thrombolytic state.


Neurology:

'A' Fibromyalgia, Headaches, Sciatica, Cervical Neuralgias, Vertigo, Bell’s Palsy. The complement system is also becoming increasingly implicated in diseases of the central nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.


Endocrine System:

'A' Hypoglycemic in Overweight Diabetics.