Nigella – Nigella Sativa


Family: Ranunculaceae





Part Used:

embryonic germinating seed-rootlets

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

Nigella sativa is an annual herbaceous (nonwoody) flowering plant (angiosperm) that originated in the Mediterranean region but has been cultivated in other parts of the world such as Asia, Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Nigella sativa is found in a lot of places; from the East Mediterranean to Northeast India. It is commonly cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East (Saudi Arabia in particular), Turkey, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Sudan, Afghanistan Europe and many more places. It grows to 20–30 cm (7.9–12 in) tall, with finely divided, linear (but not thread-like) leaves. The flowers are delicate, and usually colored pale blue and white, with 5–10 petals. The fruit is a large and inflated capsule composed of 3–7 united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. The seed is used as a spice.

Nigella sativa benefits from a mutualistic relationship with fungi. The fungi interact with the roots (endomycorrihazae) of the plant and sometimes within the actual plant cells. Nigella sativa benefits from gaining minerals from the fungi, especially Phosphorus, Nitrogen and Sulfur. And in turn the fungi receive glucose from the plant. The plant also offers protection for fungi against predators. Like any other plant, Nigella sativa are autotrophs which mean they can acquire their food (glucose) via photosynthesis by utilizing energy from sunlight. They are able to undergo photosynthesis because of a special pigment they contain on their leaves called chlorophyll.

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O (+ light energy) ----->C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

There is often a lot of confusion about the names of this herb as it is referred by a multitude of names. Some incorrect names and confusions for Black Seed are: Black Cumin, in English this is reserved for an herb from Central Asia and Northern India. Black Caraway, for its usage with Caraway in Jewish Rye breads. Black Onion Seed, motivated by the similarity to the seeds of onions. Black Sesame Seed, due to its similar appearance. Ajwain, is notorious for being confounded with numerous other plants. There is no botanical relation between "Nigella Sativa" and any of these plants. In the United States of America, "Nigella Sativa" is often known as Charnushka. This name is derived from the Russian name Chernushka [чернушка] and more than likely introduced into American English by Armenian emigrants. The Hindi term Kalonji is widely used by Indians even when speaking English.

Prophet Mohammad said, "Use this seed regularly, because it is a cure for every disease, except death." Nigella Sativa has been regarded as a true "Miracle Cure" and was found in King Tut's tomb, suggesting that even centuries ago, the Kings thought of it as a valuable plant and herb of blessings. Nigella sativa is the most beneficial of the three species of Nigella. The seeds, which have a coriander like scent, are used in sachets and potpourri. Its many uses have earned Nigella the Arabic approbation 'Habbatul barakah', meaning the seed of blessing.


Oligo-elements:

Fe, Mg, K, P, Se, Zn


Vitamins and Minerals:
A, B-1, B-2, B-3, C, Calcium, D, E.


Phytochemical Constituents:

Nigellicine, Nigellidine, nigellimine-N-oxide, Nigellimine: is a new Isoquinoline Alkaloid, Thymoquinone, Dithymoquinone, Thymohydroquinone,Nigellone, Abscisic acid (ABA), Alpha-hedrin, Alpha-pinene, Alpha-spinasterol, Arabic-acid, Arachidic-acid, Ash, Aspartic-acid, Auxins Indoleacetic acid oxidase activity (IAA), Beta-sitosterol, Brassinosteroids (BR), Campesterol, Carvone, Carvacrol, Caleosins, Cholesterol, Cymene, Eicosadienoic-acid, Ethanolamine, It contains 58% of Essential fatty acids including Omega 6 and Omega 3. Fiber, Gibberellins (GA), Glucose, Glucoside Melanthin and Metarbin, Hederagenin, Isoleucine, Immunoglobulin, d-limonene, Jasmonates-Jasmonic acid (JA), Methyl jasmonate (MJA), Ligand, Lignans, Linoleic-acid, Lipase, Lipids phospholipid composition Exporters, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Monosaccharides (glucose, rhamnose, xylose, arabinose), Myristic-acid, Oleic-acid, Oleosins, Oxy-coumarin, 6-methoxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-coumarin, Palmitic-acid, Phytosterols, Polyamines (PAs); Putrescine, Spermidine, and Spermine, Proteids, Steryl-glucoside as well as rich amounts of flavonoids, Salicylates, Sabinene, Stigmasterol, Tannins, Thymol, 1.5% Volatile Oil, Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Cystine, Glutamic-acid, Glycine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine. A novel lipid-transporting protein (Ns-LTP1) capable of suppressing the development of some pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. (2009 Sadykov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek Republic, ul Mirzo-Ulugbeka 83, Tashkent, 100125 Uzbekistan. joshepkova05).

A new triterpene saponin and known steroidal glucoside were isolated from the alcohol extract, and a new cycloartenol from n-hexane extract of seeds of Nigella sativa L. and were identified as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-11-methoxy-16,23-dihydroxy-28-methylolean-12-enoate (1), stigma-5,22-dien-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and cycloart-23-methyl-7,20, 22-triene-3beta,25-diol (3), respectively. They were characterized on the basis of spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The hexane and alcohol extract of the seeds showed antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant activity of hexane extract is also described. (2009 School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain, India. Mehta, Pandit, Vikas Gupta, Meenal).

Herbal melanin (HM) from Nigella Sativa modulates cytokine production and suggested it as a ligand for TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. HM can modulate the inflammatory response by inducing IL-8 and IL-6 production via TLR4-dependent activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

A new triterpene saponin and known steroidal glucoside were isolated from the alcohol extract, and a new cycloartenol from n-hexane extract of seeds of Nigella sativa L. and were identified as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-11-methoxy-16,23-dihydroxy-28-methylolean-12-enoate (1), stigma-5,22-dien-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and cycloart-23-methyl-7,20, 22-triene-3beta,25-diol (3), respectively. They were characterized on the basis of spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The hexane and alcohol extract of the seeds showed antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant activity of hexane extract is also described. (2009 School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain, India. Mehta, Pandit, Vikas Gupta, Meenal).

Herbal melanin (HM) from Nigella Sativa modulates cytokine production and suggested it as a ligand for TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. HM can modulate the inflammatory response by inducing IL-8 and IL-6 production via TLR4-dependent activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.
Thymoquinone.jpg
C10H12O2

Thymoquinone may act as a mitochondrial antioxidant. It was first discovered in 1985 a phytochemical compound found in Nigella sativa. It has antioxidant effects and has been shown to protect against heart, liver and kidney damage in animal studies, as well as having possible anti-cancer effects. It also has analgesic and anticonvulsant effects in animal models. It is an angiogenesis inhibitor. Inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Nigella sativa extract could almost completely inhibit the expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1b), IL-8, Cox-2 and MCP-1. Moreover, the effect was superior to that observed from Trichostatin A.
Nigellone is a polymer of the Thymoquinone.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Hematology Oncology:

Is a Potent Anti-Tumor Agent. Cytotoxic Activity, Apoptotic, Inhibiting Metastasis. Pancreatic cancer antitumor, Breast and Colon cancer. Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer at Jefferson in Philadelphia have found that thymoquinone, an extract of Nigella Sativa seed, blocked pancreatic cancer cell growth and killed the cells by enhancing the process of programmed cell death, (apoptosis). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells, thymoquinone was found to almost completely knock out the expression of several inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-8, Cox-2 and MCP-1, an effect that was superior to that of trichostatin A. The researchers found thymoquinone also inhibited the activation and synthesis of NF-kappaB, a factor that has been implicated in inflammation-associated cancer. NF-kappaB is activated in pancreatic cancer cells and may contribute to pancreatic cancer’s resistance to chemotherapy. Chronic pancreatitis, both hereditary and sporadic, is associated with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer According to the US National Cancer Institute almost 38,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are diagnosed every year in the US, with almost 34,000 deaths from the disease. Help minimize chemotherapy-induced decreases in hemoglobin and white blood cell counts. Chemoprotectant. (Braz J Med Biol Res, June 2007, Volume 40(6) 839-847).

Additionally, animal models of pancreatic cancer treated with thymoquinone had 67 percent of their tumors significantly shrunken and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the tumors significantly reduced. Inflammation is implicated in several solid tumor malignancies. Pancreatic cancer, killing 32,000 people in the United States each year, has some association with chronic pancreatitis. The researchers suggested that Nigella sativa may help people with chronic pancreatitis and those who are at high risk of devolvement or recurrence of pancreatic cancer.

Protective effect against tissue damage caused by radiation. Inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Cyclooxygenase inhibitor and Lipoxygenase inhibitor. Inhibitor of histone deacetylases that are implicated in inflammatory associated cancers, for their anti-inflammatory properties. Inhibition of DNA synthesis, and induce apoptosis by inhibiting cell growth in G1 phase. Induce apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. Decrease leukocyte and platelet counts. But there was an increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels.


ENT:

Pollen, Hay Fever and Dust allergies are effectively treated with Nigella Sativa. Flu and nasal congestion: put three to four drops of Nigella Sativa at the bottom of each nostril relieves nasal congestion and head cold distress. Otitis or any ear ache, place a few drops in behind the ear 2 to 4 x a day depending on severity as needed.


Immunological System:

Immunomodulatory Action: Increases immune function, stimulate the production of bone marrow and cells of the immune system. It increases the production of interferon, protects normal cells from the damaging effects of viral disease, destroys tumor cells and increases the number of antibody producing B cells. As Nigella Sativa extract is digested through the lymphatic’s consequently purifying and unblocking the lymphatic system making it ideal for reducing lymphedema. A 72% increase in helper to suppresser T-cells ratio and suppresser T-cells by a significant amount while also enhancing with a 30% increase of the Natural Killer cell activity.


Pulmonary System:

Thymoquinone improved oxygenation. Asthma, Bronchitis, Cough, Emphysema, Cystic Fibrosis, Allergies, Antihistaminic. Nigellone and Thymoquinone work in synergy to offers both anti-spasmodic and bronchodilating and tracheal relaxant properties which contribute to Nigella Sativa potency against respiratory ailments. It also acts as an antihistamine which helps to reduce the negative symptoms of allergy sufferers. A healthy alternative to the more commonly prescribed cortisone based therapies used by allergy sufferers. Inhibits the inflammatory pulmonary responses, reducing significantly (p<0.05) peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar septal infiltration, alveolar edema, alveolar exudate, alveolar macrophages, interstitial fibrosis, granuloma and necrosis formation in different pulmonary aspiration models. Studies indicate a significant reduction in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and a rise in surfactant protein D in lung tissue of different pulmonary aspiration models after Nigella Sativa therapy. Based on these results, it was concluded that Nigella Sativa treatment might be beneficial in lung injury and have potential clinical use. The relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism), and antihistaminic effects of Nigella Sativa.

References: Kanter, Mehmet (M); Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne 22030, Turkey. mkanter65. 2009-; vol 111 (issue 5) : pp 393-403.


Neurological/Nervous System:

Facial Paralysis Bells Palsy and Tetanus. Amnesia. Migraines. For migraines, you need to take the extract and rub it on the back of your neck and over the hairline. Also, if you have pain at the top of your head, dab some there. Then take a few drops and put in each nostril, not deep inside but at the bottom of the nostril, and then breathe in deeply. This needs to be done 3 times a day or as long as the headache remains. You also need to take 1 teaspoon (25 drops) of the extract with one teaspoon of honey when you first wake up in the morning. Wait one hour before eating anything for breakfast. Or prophylactically 10 drops 3 x a day and for acute 30 drops 3 x a day in severe Migraines.

Often there are things that will trigger a migraine for people susceptible to them. Food triggers are common and include hormonal changes, dairy, eggs, chocolate, coffee, and some food additives. Stress, anxiety, and fatigue may also be personal triggers for some people. For successful migraine avoidance, it is important to learn what your personal triggers are and do everything possible to avoid these. Nigella Sativa display its antioxidant and regulatory effects via inflammatory cells rather than the host tissue (brain and medulla spinalis). Nigella Sativa showed a rapid improvement in signs and symptoms of acute opioid abstinence. It was also observed that Nigella Sativa prevented the development of significant craving and relapse.
It is concluded that Nigella Sativa is effective in long term management of opioid dependence.


Cardio Vascular System:

Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides. Inhibits lipid peroxidation. Strong antioxidant that protect the heart. For Hypertension it is an adjuvant but when combine with Mistletoe – Viscum Album (young shoots) which it potentiate its hypotensive effect and renders it synergistically a polycrest. Also the same applies when mixed with Rauwolfia serpentina it also potentiate its hypotensive effect and completely offset the nasal congestion side effect of Rauwolfia Serpentina. Either combo will reduced blood pressure within 3 weeks from initiation of therapy effectively and sustained effects in the management of hypertension. But Nigella Sativa by itself is not enough.


Gi-Digestive Hepatology:

Hepatoprotective, Antiulcer, Antiparasitic, Vermifuge for intestinal worms especially tapeworm, Gas, Colic, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Constipation and Hemorrhoids. Will restore the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione, and SOD. Promote digestion due to its lipase content and promote cleansing and assist with overall elimination action. Thymoquinone a very strong anti-oxidant and helps cleanse and detoxify the body of toxins. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur in a variety of clinical settings such as trauma, sepsis, liver transplantation or hepatic pedicle clamping during a liver surgery and this remains a significant problem. Oxygen free radicals, produced on reperfusion have been shown to play a major role in hepatic I/R injury. Various therapeutic effects have been described for Nigella sativa. Additionally, it has been presented that Nigella sativa has protective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. Therefore, it seems possible that the administration of Nigella Sativa might protect the liver against the ischemia reperfusion injury which can initiates a series of events that can ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction and necrosis. To treat abscesses and tumors of the abdomen and liver. Also excellent in H-Pylori infections. Stomach tumors, carcinoma, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Thymoquinone improved oxygenation and protect lung tissue from hazardous effects of human gastric juice (pH 1.2) histopathologically.


Musculoskeletal System:

Thymoquinone contains excellent Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties: almost completely inhibit the expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1b), IL-8, Cox-2 and MCP-1. Especially good in cervical arthrosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. Dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, thymol and thymoquinone, possess significant inhibitory activity against at least one COX form at concentrations comparable to the active one of indomethacin, scientists in Czech Republic report. Thymol was the most active against COX-1.


Infectious Diseases:

Anti-bacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral Cytomegalovirus, and Anti-parasitic against Blastocystis hominis. An Anti-Helminthic, if taken with organic apple cider vinegar. Very useful for a Chronic Cold. Thymoquinone, was found to inhibit some opportunistic fungi: Aspergillus Niger, Fusarium solani and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and many species of three important genera of dermatophytes: Trichophyton, Epidemophyton and Microsporum, isolated from the clinical cases. Similarly, considering the development of resistance against the presently available antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori, a clinical trial was conducted to investigate the activity of N. sativa seed for the eradication of H. pylori in non-ulcer dyspeptic patients and found to possess anti-H. Pylori activity comparable to the standard triple therapy. (Studies were done by the King Faisal University (KFU) Dammam Saudi Arabia). Antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus MRSA.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and yeast (Candida albicans). High activity against gram-positive microorganisms. Aspergillosis may present as well defined clinical syndromes involving a variety of sites and organ systems: pulmonary, disseminated, central nervous system, cutaneous, endocardial and nasoorbital. It almost exclusively occurs in patients who are immuno-suppressed or neutropenic, particularly in transplant recipients and those with leukemias or lymphomas. Aspergillosis is also reported in corticosteroid use, intravenous drug abuse and later stages of AIDS. Of the some 700 Aspergillus species described, only 19 have been cited as causing human infections; of these only 4 are recovered with any frequency in hospitalized patients: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. terreus. Thymoquinone, is the active phytochemical principal of Nigella Sativa, effectively inhibited the growth of Aspergillus Niger. HIV-1 protease inhibitor induced oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells: protection with thymoquinone. (Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009 Apr;234(4):442-53). Thymoquinone exhibited potent growth-inhibiting activity against gram-positive bacteria. Nigella Sativa was compared with five antibiotics: Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Cotrimoxazole, Gentamicin, and Nalidixic Acid and was shown to be more effective against many strains of bacteria, including those known to be highly resistant to drugs: V. Cholera, E. Coli, and all strains of Shigella spp., except Shigella Dysentriae.

Very Important Note: Biofilms membrane-perforating properties associated with saponins, here represented by alpha-hederin and thymoquinone are very effective agents for the eradication of chronic bacterial gram-positive biofilm infections, but not effective in gram-negative infections.


OBGYN/Reproductive System:

Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractions. Promotes Lactation a galactagogue and promote menstruation for amenorrhea and Hexane extract of the seeds of Nigella Sativa prevents pregnancy in post-coital contraceptive efficacy. Recent research has shown that Nigella Sativa increases the number of mammary cells in laboratory animals. Humans tend to react similarly to compounds with mammary effects.


Renal Urogenital System:

Decreased mild hypertension possibly due to its diuretic effects. Inhibit certain enzymes, which also inhibit the production of certain prostaglandins. Strong antioxidant protects the kidneys from damage.


Dermatology:

For Loss of Hair & premature Graying. Antidermatophyte, fungal skin infections. Wipe affected area with organic apple cider vinegar, then apply Nigella Sativa on affected area of the fungal infected sites. Effective in mad dog biting. Also used to treat skin conditions such as Acne, Eczema, Vitiligo, Boils, Calluses and Corns. A skin emollient.


Endocrine:

Regenerates Pancreatic β-cells. Diabetes balance insulin levels, Hypoglycemic, improves body weight and reproductivity. Beneficial in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. Stimulates the body's energy and helps recovery from fatigue and dispiritedness and lethargy. Good in infant growth due to its content of the brassinosteroids.


Opthalmology:

Eye disease & impaired vision improves weak vision by strengthening the eyes. To treat abscesses of the eyes and early stages of cataracts formation.


Dental:

Toothache and bacterial gum pockets or sore gingival. After flossing and brushing teeth put 20 drops of Nigella Sativa into ¼ cup lukewarm water and do mouth swish at least 2 x a day up to 4 times in severe cases.


Environmental Medicine:

Protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of toxic metals such as lead, and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation following exposure to chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride. Effective in treating opioid dependence. A potential treatment on neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure. Studies suggest a prophylactic effect of Nigella Sativa on chemical war victims. (December 2008 Department of Physiology, Medical School, and Pharmacological Research Centre of Medical Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Boskabady, Mohammad H, Farhadi, Javad).


Contraindications:

Do not use if you wish to conceived although not an abortificient it does induce menstruation for this reason work as a contraceptive. Only those this effect applies to long term use of this plant not for short duration.


Herb-Drug Interactions:

Nigella sativa has antioxidant effects. In theory, it may interfere with the actions of certain chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy. Results from a study show that pre-treatment with Nigella Sativa extract reduced the subsequent cyclosporine A injury in rat heart, demonstrated by normalized cardiac histopathology, decrease in lipid peroxidation, improvement in antioxidant enzyme status and cellular protein oxidation.

Indeed pretreatment of pancreatic beta-cells with thymoquinone caused a reversal of nelfinavir induced deleterious effects. Thymoquinone decreased the production of reactive oxygen species, increased the Cu/Zn SOD and glutathione levels, suppressed the UCP-2 protein levels and restored nelfinavir induced decrease in insulin secretion to normal levels in these cells. Dr Agrawal commented, 'An important finding of this study is that the dysregulation of insulin production in pancreatic beta-cells is due to generation of reactive oxygen species induced by nelfinavir, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor.' Thymoquinone as a protective agent against HIV-1 protease inhibitor induced deleterious effects on pancreatic beta-cells. (2009 Dr Krishna C. Agrawal, Regents Professor and Chairman included Surabhi Chandra, a graduate student and another faculty member, Dr Debasis Mondal in the Department of Pharmacology).

Nigella sativa may have additive hypotensive effect when used with other antihypertensive or diuretic drugs.


Laboratory Influences:

Decrease serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol levels and leukocyte and platelet counts. But there was an increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels.

REFERENCES
*1. El-Kadi A, Kandil O (1986) Effect of Nigella sativa (the black seed) on immunity. Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Islamic Medicine, Kuwait. Bulletin of Islamic Medicine Vol 4: 344-348
*2. El-Kadi A, Kandil O, Tabuni AM (1989) Nigella sativa and cell mediated immunity. Arch AIDS Res, 1:232-233El-Dakhakhany M (1963) Studies on the chemical constitution of Egyptian N. sativa L. seeds. Planta Med, 11 (4): 465-470
*3. El-Fatatry (1975) Isolation and structure assignment of an anti-microbial principle from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa L seeds. Pharmazie, Feb, 30 (2): 109-111
*4. Ata-ur-Rehman, Malik S, Ahmed S, Chaudhry I, Habib-ur-Rehman (1985a) Nigellimine-N-Oxide, a new isoquinoline alkaloid from seeds of Nigella sativa. Heterocycles, 23: 953-955
*5. Ata-ur-Rehman, Malik S, Cun-Hung H, Clardy J (1985b) Isolation and structure determination of nigellicine, a novel alkaloid from seeds of Nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett, 26: 2759-2762
*6. Atta UR, Malik SO (1995) Nigellidine, a new indazole alkaloid from seeds of Nigella sativa. J. Res Iinst; 36:1993-1996
*7. Kumara SS, Huat BT (2001) Extraction, isolation and characterization of anti-tumor principle, alpha-hedrin, from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Planta Med, Feb, 67 (1): 29-32
*8. Randhawa MA, Al-Ghamdi MS (2002) A review of the pharmaco-therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa. Pak J Med Res 41 No.2, 77-83
*9. Topozada HH, Masloum H, El-Dakhakhany M (1965) The anti-bacterial properties of Nigella sativa seeds: Active principle with some clinical application. J Egyp Med Asso, 48(suppl): 187-202
*10. Hanafi MS, Hatem ME (1991) Studies on the anti-microbial activity of the Nigella sativa seed (Black Cumin). J Ethnopharmacol, Sep, 34 (2-3): 275-278
*11. Morsi (2000) Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria. Acta Microbiol Pol 49 (1): 63-74
*12. Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WCJr (1997). Mycology. In Color Atlas and Text Book of Diagnostic Microbiology, Lippincott, USA; P: 1001-1008
*13. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Abu-Ghdeib SI (1999) Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Mycoses, 42 (11-12): 665-672
*14. Al-Jishi SAA (2000) A study of Nigella sativa on blood hemostatic functions. M.Sc Thesis, department of Physiology, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.