Rosemary – Rosmarinus Officinalis


Family: Lamiaceae
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Part Used:
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Young Shoots

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.


The Rosmarinus officinalis is a woody, perennial herb that is native to the Mediterranean region. Its Latin name, ros-marinus, meaning “dew of the sea,” is presumed to be linked to the plant’s preference to grow near the sea. The Rosmarinus officinalis has gray, scaly bark and grows about 6 feet tall with a spread of 4 to 5 feet. The pungent fragrance exuded by its needle-like leaves is reminiscent of pine. About an inch long, the leaves are evergreen on top and grayish-white underneath. Clusters of delicate, sea-blue flowers blossom in spring and last throughout the summer in warm, humid environments. Common uses include dye, essential oil, ground cover, hair, hedges, incense, insect repellent.

Drug Interaction:
Doxorubicin In a laboratory study, rosemary extract increased the effectiveness of doxorubicin in treating human breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, those taking doxorubicin should consult with a healthcare practitioner before taking rosemary.

Most evidence for rosemary's medicinal uses comes from clinical experience rather than from scientific studies. However, recent laboratory studies have shown that rosemary slows the growth of a number of bacteria such as E. coli and S. aureus that are involved in food spoilage, and may actually perform better than some commercially used food preservatives.

Alopecia One traditional use of rosemary has been to try to stimulate hair growth. In one study of 86 people with alopecia areata (a disease of unknown cause characterized by significant hair loss, generally in patches), those who massaged their scalps with rosemary and other essential oils (including lavender, thyme, and cedar wood) every day for 7 months experienced significant hair re-growth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. It is not entirely clear from this study whether rosemary (or a combination of rosemary and the other essential oils) was responsible for the beneficial effects.

Cancer Both laboratory and animal studies suggest that rosemary's antioxidant properties may have activity against colon, breast, stomach, lung, and skin cancer cells. However, much more research in this area, including trials involving people, must be conducted before conclusions can be drawn about the value of rosemary for cancer. Carnosol is a naturally occurring phytopolyphenol found in rosemary. Carnosol functions as an antioxidant and anticarcinogenic. In the present study, we compared the antioxidant activity of carnosol and other compounds extracted from rosemary. Carnosol showed potent antioxidative activity in -diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenge and DNA protection from Fenton reaction. High concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in inflammation and multiple stages of carcinogenesis.

Rosemary's Effect on Insulin Levels
Al-Hader, A.A., Z.A. Hasan, and M.B. Aqel. “Hyperglycemic and Insulin Release Inhibitory Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Vol 43 1994: An aqueous extract prepared from leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is widely used in Jordan as a folk remedy for abdominal colic. It has been suggested that rosemary's volatile oil causes smooth muscle relaxation by inhibiting the increase in cytosolic free calcium concentrations; in turn, a raised cytosolic free calcium level is known to be a trigger for pancreatic insulin release. With this information in consideration, the present study was conducted, using normal and diabetic rabbits, to determine the potential effects of rosemary oil on insulin release and blood glucose levels. It was found that administration of the oil produced a significant change in plasma glucose and serum insulin levels in the normal rabbits, and a significant hyperglycemic effect in the diabetic rabbits. No effect on the fasting plasma glucose levels in normal rabbits was observed. Based on these results, the authors conclude that the volatile oil of rosemary leaves (young shoots) has significant hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects.

Other Uses:
Dye; Essential; Ground cover; Hair; Hedge; Incense; Repellent.


Abstracts of Published Research on Rosemary – Rosmarinus Officinalis:

1. J Food Prot. 2009 Aug;72(8):1744-52
In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of commercial rosemary extract formulations. Klancnik A, Guzej B, Kolar MH, Abramovic H, Mozina SS.

2. J Food Prot. 2009 May;72(5):1107-11
Inhibitory effect of commercial green tea and rosemary leaf powders on the growth of foodborne pathogens in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes. Lee SY, Gwon SY, Kim SJ, Moon BK.

3. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jun 15;33(4):642-50. Epub 2009 Mar 13.
Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: involvement of the monoaminergic system.Machado DG, Bettio LE, Cunha MP, Capra JC, Dalmarco JB, Pizzolatti MG, Rodrigues AL.

4. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009 Apr;48(4):440-6. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. van Vuuren SF, Suliman S, Viljoen AM.

5. J Med Food. 2008 Dec;11(4):741-6.
Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in experimental animal models.Takaki I, Bersani-Amado LE, Vendruscolo A, Sartoretto SM, Diniz SP, Bersani-Amado CA, Cuman RK.

6. Harefuah. 2008 Oct;147(10):783-8, 838.
The treatment of respiratory ailments with essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants. Rakover Y, Ben-Arye E, Goldstein LH.

7. J Nutr. 2008 Nov;138(11):2098-105.
Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein-1-dependent activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell lines. Scheckel KA, Degner SC, Romagnolo DF.

8. Neuroreport. 2008 Aug 27;19(13):1301-4.
Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Park JA, Kim S, Lee SY, Kim CS, Kim do K, Kim SJ, Chun HS.

9. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Nov-Dec;59(7-8):691-8.
Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) oil from Turkey. Ozcan MM, Chalchat JC.


Oligo-elements:

B, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, Si, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

B-1, B-2, B-3, C, Calcium.


Phytochemical Constituents:

1,8-Cineole, 13-O-Acetyloleanolic-Acid, Acetic-Acid, Alpha-Amyrin, Alpha-Humulene, Alpha-Phellandrene, Alpha-Pinene, Alpha-Selinene, Alpha-Terpinene, Alpha-Terpineol, Alpha-Thujone, Apigenin, AR-Curcumene, Ascorbic-Acid, Benzyl-Alcohol, Beta-Amyrin, Beta-Carotene, Beta-Elemene, Beta-Phellandrene, Beta-Pinene, Beta-Sitosterol, Beta-Thujone, Betulin, Betulinic-Acid, Borneol, Bornyl-Acetate, Caffeic-Acid, Camphene, Camphor, Carnosic-Acid, Carnosol, Carvacrol, Carvone, Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene-Oxide, Chlorogenic-Acid, Delta-3-Carene, Delta-Cadinene, Diosmetin, Diosmin, Dipentene, Elemol, Ethanol, Eugenol-Methyl-Ether, Fenchone, Fiber, Gamma-Terpinene, Genkwanin, Geraniol, Glycolic-Acid, Hesperidin, Hispidulin, Hispiduloside, Isoborneol, Isobornyl-Acetate, Isobutyl-Acetate, Isopulegol, Isorosmanol, Labiatic-Acid, Limonene, Luteolin, Luteolin-3'-O-(3-O-Acetyl)-Beta-D-Glucuronide,Luteolin-3'-O-(4-O-Acetyl)-Beta-D Glucuronide, Luteolin-7-Glucoside, Methyl-Eugenol, Myrcene, Myrtenol, Neo-Chlorogenic-Acid, Nepetin, Nepetrin, Octanoic-Acid, Oleanolic-Acid, P-Cymene, Pectin, Piperitenone, Rosmadial, Rsomanol, Rosmaridiphenol, Rosmarinic-Acid, Rosmariquinone, Sabinene, Safrole, Salicylates, Sinensetin, Squalene, Styrene, Tannin, Terpinen-4-OL, Terpinolene, Thymol, Toluene, Trans-Anethole, Trans-Carveol, Trans-Pinocarveol, Ursolic-Acid, Verbenone, Zingiberine
Diterpenes such as picrosalvin (= carnosol), carnosolic acid, rosmariquinone and salicylates.

Miscellaneous; rosmaricine, the triterpenes ursolic acid, oleanolic acid & derivatives.

Carnosol is a naturally occurring phytopolyphenol found in rosemary. Carnosol functions as antioxidant and anticarcinogenic. In the present study, we compared the antioxidant activity of carnosol and other compounds extracted from rosemary. Carnosol showed potent antioxidative activity in, -diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenge and DNA protection from Fenton reaction. High concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in inflammation and multiple stages of carcinogenesis.

Studies have shown Rosemary to be as effective as the synthetic preservatives BHA and BHT.

Several laboratory studies suggest that rosemary contains compounds that prevent carcinogenic chemicals from binding to and inducing mutations in DNA.

The compounds epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and carnosol are known to be anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive.

Therefore, we studied their effect on the generation of peroxynitrite radicals and nitrite. They inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) induced nitrite production by mouse peritoneal cells by more than 50% at 2.5-10 microM. Cell viability assays verified that the inhibition was not due to general cellular toxicity.

Rosemary seems to have also anti-cancer properties. Researchers at Rutgers University have demonstrated that rosemary oil can prevent the development of tumors in animals. When applied externally, rosemary oil reduced the risk of skin cancer and when taken internally it reduced the incidence of colon and lung cancer. However, rosemary oil should never be taken
internally by humans because it can cause irritation and poisoning.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
The Greatest Liver Agent!


Neurology & Nervous System:

'P' Balances Nervous Equilibrium euphoric action, Improves Memory, Neuro vegetative dystonia. Rosemary may prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine, a chemical that allows neurons within the brain to communicate with each other. Neuroprotective carnosic acid activates a novel signaling pathway that protects brain cells from free radical damage, seen in stroke and other neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Carnosic acid to promote the production of Nerve Growth Factor. Cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion. Carnosic acid reduces cytokine-induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Carnosic acid, may shield the brain from free radicals, lowering the risk of strokes and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Lou Gehrig's. For this purpose you will have to use 10 to 20 drops 3 x a day.

Carnosic acid has two therapeutic properties that make it a vital neuroprotective agent:

1. It protects against the narrowing of the left and right middle cerebral arteries - two of the major arteries carrying blood to the brain. Narrowing of these arteries with age is a common and important factor contributing to the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

2. Carnosic acid increases the body's production of the antioxidant, glutathione. Glutathione is one of the most important antioxidants that help to protect the brain against free radical damage.

Also the antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid is mediated by the inhibition of cytosolic calcium mobilization and that carnosic acid has the potential of being developed as a novel antiplatelet agent.

CA activates the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway by binding to specific (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, also known as KEAP1, is a human gene) Keap1 cysteine residues, thus protecting neurons from oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. In cerebrocortical cultures, CA-biotin accumulates in non-neuronal cells at low concentrations and in neurons at higher concentrations. It was presented evidence that both the neuronal and non-neuronal distribution of CA may contribute to its neuroprotective effect. Furthermore, CA translocates into the brain, increases the level of reduced glutathione in vivo, and protects the brain against middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion, suggesting that CA mayrepresent a new type of neuroprotective electrophilic compound.


References: Journal of Neurochemistry, Volume 104, Number 4, February 2008 , pp. 1116-1131(16).



Cardio Vascular System:

'P' Reduces Cholesterol LDL and Triglycerides due to the rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid which assists the liver in breaking down lipids. Atherosclerosis, Improves Circulation of the extremities. Reduces the level of urea and uric acid. General detoxification by being an anti oxidant. Balances the Ionic and Mineral equilibrium. Normalizes the Vagus response A study found that depressed patients with VNS improved over time in terms of remission and response and also improved in their ability to function. It protects against the narrowing of the left and right middle cerebral arteries - two of the major arteries carrying blood to the brain. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and NF-kB activation may be due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Carnosic acid, a new class of lipid absorption inhibitor lowers triglycerides, its effectiveness in inhibiting LDL (low density lipoprotein). Carnosic Acid is the starting element of a process known as the “Carnosic Acid Cascade” of chemical reactions in the body where free radicals are quenched. Carnosic acid is transformed into carnosol; carnosol into rosmanol; and rosmanol into galdosol. With each of these transformations, free radicals are quenched. Its containment of this multi-step process that makes Rosemary young shoots one of the most potent antioxidants found in nature.

A study showed that carnosic acid effectively inhibited the TNF-a-induced migration of HASMC. The levels of ROS production, MMP-9 activation and expression, and nuclear translocation of NF-kB p50 and p65 were also all reduced by CA pretreatment. The present results led us to conclude that CA inhibits TNF-a-induced nuclear translocation of p50 and p65, thereby suppressing the activation and protein expression of MMP-9, resulting in decreased HASMC migration. Thus, CA may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

References: British Journal of Nutrition (2008), 100, 731–738.

Elemol (sesquiterpene) a γ-lactone and not a δ-lactone as previously assumed: Antiacetylcholinesterase, Anticheilitic, Anticoronary, Antidementia, Antidepressant, Antigingivitic, Antiglossitic, Antigout, Antiinfertility, Antimetaplastic, Antimyelotoxic, Antineuropathic, Antiperiodontal, Antiplaque, Antipolyp, Antipsychotic, Antiulcer, Cancer-Preventive, Hematopoietic, Immunostimulant, Uricosuric, Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor. Effect of elemol,, on the tracheal smooth muscle.

Fenchone (monoterpene and a Ketone): Antialzheimeran; Anticholinesterase; Counterirritant; Perfumery; Secretolytic.
Carnosic acid reduces cytokine-induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.
References: European journal of nutrition 48(2):101-6, 2009 March.

Rosmariquinone (RQ), an ortho-quinone diterpenoid: act as a hydrogen-donating antioxidant.


Hematology Oncology:

'P' Increases RBCs, Anticoagulant. Reduced the incidence of skin, colon and lung cancer. Anti-Cancer. Induces Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells through Caspase Activation and Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase Cleavage.


Immunology:

'P' Increases WBC, Allergies associated with liver problems. Eye-related symptoms associated with seasonal allergies. Rosmarinic acid (suggested as a treatment for septic shock, since it suppresses the endotoxin-induced activation of complement). Rosmarinic Acid Induces p56lck-Dependent Apoptosis in Jurkat and Peripheral T Cells via Mitochondrial Pathway Independent from Fas/Fas Ligand Interaction 1.

Rosmarinic acid has been shown to kill allergy-activated T cells and neutrophils during allergic reactions without affecting the T cells or neutrophils in their resting state. Using traditional antihistamines in allergic reactions, on the other hand, is somewhat analogous to turning off a fire alarm without putting out the fire. Antihistamines do nothing to lower the number of excess immune cells once they are formed. High levels of immune cells in their active form can lead to other dangers, such as free radical damage to normal tissues and to circulating proteins like HDL. They are many different types of Luteolins in Rosemary which inhibits antigen-specific proliferation and interferon-gamma production by murine and human autoimmune T cells. Flavonoids such as luteolin and apigenin are inhibitors of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 production by activated human basophils.


Infectious Disease:

'P' Contains 44 Antibacterial phytochemicals, 26 Antiviral and 12 Antiherpetic phytochemicals. Effective against: H-Pylori, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus.


Pulmonary System:

'P' Respiratory Decompensation. Advanced Tuberculosis. Antiasthmatic; Acute Asthma; Allergic Rhinitis; Chronic Bronchitis. In another study, researchers showed that rosmarinic acid inhibited lung injury from diesel exhaust particles, and outlined the exact steps by which rosmarinic acid brings about the cell death of activated T cells. The study also showed that the accumulation of neutrophils in human lung disease is directly related to the localized elevation of the cytokine IL-8, which supports the theory that IL-8 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:

'P' Intestinal Decompensation, Epithelial action on colon mucosa intestinal smooth muscle relaxant. Crohn’s Disease & Colitis, Diverticulosis, Celiac Disease, Hepatic Function: Hepato Protective 63%. Liver Insufficiency, Biliary Dyskinesia. Cholelithiasis, Liver & Gallbladder major detoxifier, Gallbladder antispasmodic action in Chronic Cholecystitis. Antiacetylcholinesterase, Hepatitis A, B & C. Maintains good liver function in patients on birth control pills and implants. Protects against damage of Excess fat consumption. Carnosol and carnosic acid have been suggested to account for over 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract. Carnosic acid increases the body's production of the antioxidant, glutathione. Fenchone components have a secretolytic effect on the respiratory tract. Also help to relieve smooth muscle spasms in the bowel.

Keap1 regulates both cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling and degradation of Nrf2 in response to electrophiles. Transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of a set of detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzyme genes. Several lines of evidence suggest that electrophiles and reactive oxygen species liberate Nrf2 from its cytoplasmic repressor Keap1 and provoke the accumulation of Nrf2 in the nucleus.

Piperitenone (monoterpene ketone): Antiacetylcholinesterase; Intestinal smooth muscle relaxant.


Musculoskeletal System:

'P' Contains 33 Antiinflammatory phytochemicals, 21 Analgesic and 8 COX-2-Inhibitor phytochemicals. α-thujone (pain killing) effect, comparable to codeine.


Ob Gyn/Reproductive System:

'A' Frigidity, Dysmenorrhea.


Uro Genital System:

'A' Prostate Congestion. Reduces the level of urea and uric acid.


Endocrine System:

'A' Adrenal Insufficiency, Gonad Senescence, (Potential for diabetes as from the latest research). Andropause, Impotency, sexual anomaly functional, Dysendocrinia. Anti-TSH action of rosmarinic acids for Hyperthyroidism.


Dermatology:

'A' Skin regenerative and wound healing, displays its main activity in the dermis,Rosmarinic Acid is a potent Antioxidant it inhibits the activity of Elastase (an Enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of Elastin). verbenone phytochemical especially useful for treating chronic skin conditions, dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. Acne prone skin may respond favorably to the renewing effects of Rosemary verbenone, as well as to its action to fight infection and promote glandular balance and function. Its skin nourishing action makes it ideal for dry and mature skin. Alopecia, Oily Hair, Skin, Scalp conditions, and Dandruff. Antiscar.


Opthalmology:

A Hispiduloside, Nepetrin and Sinensetin (flavonoids): Anticataract. Rosmarinic acid particularly inhibited the eye-related symptomsassociated with seasonal allergies.



Environmental Medicine:

'A' as a treatment for septic shock, since it suppresses the endotoxin-induced activation of complement. Rosmarinic acid inhibits lung injury from diesel exhaust particles, and outlined the exact steps by which rosmarinic acid brings about the cell death of activated T cells. The accumulation of neutrophils in human lung disease is directly related to the localized elevation of the cytokine IL-8, which supports the theory that IL-8 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.