Rye – Secale Cereale


Family: Gramineae
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Part Used:

Embryonic germinating seed Rootlets

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Secale cereale is a hardy annual plant from the grass family that probably originated in southwestern Asia. The plant grows to a height of 4 to 6 feet. From May to July, the plant bears its inconspicuous, yellow flowers in dense terminal spikes, bearing florets that develop one-seeded fruits. Fruit and seed production begins in spring and continues until summer. Its edible grain is used to make coffee, cakes, and bread. Its sprouted seeds can be used for salads. Malt, extracted from the roasted germinated seed, can be used as a sweetening agent and for making beer. Other uses include biomass, green manure, oil, soil stabilization, thatching, fuel, and paper.

Edible Uses:
Seed; Sweetener; Coffee

As a seed, rye is edible when cooked. A common cereal, it is used especially in northern Europe to make bread. The seed contains about 13% protein. The grain also contains some gluten, though not as much as wheat, so it makes heavier bread than wheat. It can also be used to make cakes, etc. The seed can be sprouted and added to salads. A nutritional analysis is available.

Malt, a sweet substance produced by germinating the seed, is extracted from the roasted germinated seed and used as a sweetening agent and in making beer, etc.

The roasted (ungerminated) seed is used as a coffee substitute.

Composition:
Seed (Dry weight)In g per 100 g weight of food:Water: 0; Calories: 380; Protein: 13.2; Fat: 2.5; Carbohydrate: 82.5; Fiber:2.2; Ash: 2.In mg per 100 g weight of food:Calcium: 44; Phosphorus: 400; Iron: 4; Sodium: 4; Potassium: 524;Vitamin A: 0; Thiamine: 0.4; Riboflavin: 0.24; Niacin: 1.8; Vitamin C: 0.Source: [218](Note: the figures given here are the median of a range given in the report.)

Other Uses:
Biomass; Green manure; Oil; Soil stabilization; Thatching.

The straw is used as a fuel or as a biomass in industry. It is quite strong and can also be used in thatching, for paper making, weaving mats, hats, etc.

The plant is a good green manure crop. It is fast growing with an extensive and deep root system. It is especially useful if sown in late autumn. Its growth over the winter will prevent soil erosion and the leaching of nutrients from the soil; it can then be incorporated into the soil in the spring. The extensive root system also makes this a good plant to use for soil stabilization, especially on sandy soils.

(Educational data supplied by TID HEALTH, a division of TERRACE INT'L DISTRIBUTORS)

Secale cereale:
Ethno-botanical uses of rye grass vary from use as an intoxicant, a coffee, a liqueur, a laxative, and against tumors. In clinical trials and with anecdotal evidence, Secale cereale has been shown to increase the immune response. It aids in energy production within the cell, protects against toxic effects of radiation therapy and neutralizes free radicals. Its specific use with asthma patient’s results in increased expectoration and relief of coughs, an increased ability to exercise, improved lung function and a significant decrease in asthma medication needed by the patient. The overall immune stimulating effects of Secale cereale are due to its active constituents.

Use Secale cereale for mild moderate asthma, allergies, CFS, viral, fungal, and bacterial infections, HIV-related symptoms, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Gulf War Syndrome.

Poultice: The seed is made into a poultice and applied to tumors.


Abstracts of Published Research on Rye – Secale Cereale:

1. J Urol. 2008 Jun;179(6):2119-25. Epub 2008 Apr 18.
Phytotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Dedhia RC, McVary KT.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Here we are talking about the germinating stage of the seedlings. These Rootlets role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, it was identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. These young rootlets are Thioredoxin-Reductase Regulator. These young roots have all of following same phytochemicals composition as for Maize, Rye and Silver Birch seeds.

Not only do phytochemicals play a role in human health but their proteins and genes also come to the rescue. The roots are ABC Transporters in Humans also, phytosociology analogue to human physiology.

The rootlet soon becomes a root, assumes a corky layer instead of the tender, spongiform epidermis, and ceases to absorb. But new rootlets spring from the radicle, or branch from the axis, which in their turn absorb, harden, divide and subdivide; and so on indefinitely. The roots of the birch trees will spread to a distance of at least twice the tree's height. This means that the roots of a mature tree may cover an area about one third the size of a football field. Root systems of trees vary widely both within and between species, in different soil conditions and forest site types.

The term “fine roots” has been used for roots <2 mm in diameter. The short roots are morphologically distinct from the rest of the root system. Short roots, as for primary structure, are ectomycorrhizas (ECM). Since short-rootlets functions, such as water and ion uptake, are closely related to root structure, different morphological and physiological parameters of short absorbing roots are potential indicators of the mineral nutrition of trees on forest soils. Short roots adapt to changes in soil conditions by differentiating their anatomical and morphological features, which develop in conjunction with genetic variability and environmental conditions. Roots are initiated early in the apical meristem. At a short distance from the apex, the long cells undergo structural and histochemical changes from a “primary” towards a “secondary” stage: an impermeable suberized lamella is formed, cellulose lamellae become impregnated by lignin, and the protoplast dies off. The short cells show a distinctly thickened outer wall (“cap”) which is composed exclusively of cellulose, and possess abundant cytoplasm with a large nucleus. In the process of ageing the structure of short cells is not markedly affected. Following the early disintegration of rhizodermis, the exodermis works as the external protective layer of the fragile end-root. Its long cells fulfill the mechanical protection, the short cells serve as passage cells for solutions and gases, during the whole life-span of the rootlet. The primary root is only a few inches long and is short lived. It is soon replaced by the thick, long, storage roots which are clothed with short, absorbing laterals.


Oligo-elements:

Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Su, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, Calcium, D, E.


Phytochemical Constituents:

High level of Amino acids Importers. Sesquiterpene Abscisic acid (ABA), Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic-Acid, Auxins Indoleacetic acid oxidase activity (IAA), Beta-1,3 glucans, Brassinosteroids (BR), Caleosins, (+)-catechin, Chlorophyll catabolites, Coenzyme Q10, Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid, Cystine, Cytokinins (CK), Antifungal Diterpene defense compounds, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone, Eicosenoic Acid - omega-9 fatty acid, Emodin, Ergosterol, Ethanolamine, Fiber, Genistein, Gibberellins (GA), Glutamic-Acid, Glutathione, Glycine, Glycolic Acid, Histidine, Immunoglobulin, Isoleucine, Jasmonates-Jasmonic acid (JA), Methyl jasmonate (MJA), Leucine, Linoleic-Acid, Lysine, Ligand, Lignans, Lipids phospholipid composition Exporters, Matairesinol, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Methionine, Mufa, Myricitrin, Oleic-Acid, Oleosins, Palmitic-Acid, Palmitoleic-Acid, Phenols, Phenylalanine, Platyphylloside, Polyamines (PAs); Putrescine, Spermidine, and Spermine, Proanthocyanidins, Proteins, and Peptides, Pufa, Serine, Quercetin, Salicylic acid (SA), Squalene, Stearic-Acid, Steroidal triterpenoids, 3-hydroxy-4(Z), 6(Z), 8(Z), 10(Z)-tetraenoic acid, Sterols, Stigmasterol, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine.

Hormonal Vitamins
The chemicals thiamine, pyridoxine and niacin are vitamins, necessary in the diet of animals and other heterotrophs for normal growth and maintenance. In the green plant these same chemicals function in the physiological role of hormones. And within the cells of organisms they each function as a part of a vital enzyme. Thus the same chemical may function in any of three physiological roles: vitamin, hormone, and enzyme. Auxins are also responsible for adventitious root development. In various combinations thiamin, pyridoxin or niacin will support the indefinite growth of isolated roots of many species.
β-D-glucan (properly known as Beta-1,3 glucans are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds, but also incorrectly called 1,3-β-D-glucan or even just glucan) are being referred to as biological response modifiers because of their ability to activate the immune system. However, it should be noted that the activity of Beta-1,3 glucan is different from other agents that stimulate the immune system. Agents that stimulate the immune system can push the system to over-stimulation, and hence are contraindicated in individuals with autoimmune diseases, allergies, or yeast infections.

Beta-1,3 glucans seem to make the immune system more competent regulates it without becoming overactive. They accomplish this by activating phagocytes, which are immune system cells whose function is to trap and destroy foreign substances in our bodies such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Beta-1,3 glucans has been used as an immunoadjuvant therapy for cancer since 1980, primarily in Japan. Numerous studies report that beta-1, 3 glucan has anti-tumor and anti-cancer activity. In one study, intralesional administration of beta-1,3 glucans resulted in rapid tumor shrinkage. In another study with mice, beta 1,3 glucan in conjunction with interferon gamma inhibited both the establishment of tumors and liver metastasis. In addition to enhancing the activity of phagocytes, beta-1,3 glucans also reportedly lower elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, aid in wound healing, help prevent infections, enhance NK cell function, and help in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

Beta-1,3 glucans, which is also known to help the immune system fight bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections by activating key immune cells known as macrophages. Studies have shown that rye extract can also improve the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH).

Matairesinol is a lignan found in Secale cereale that can be classified as a phytoestrogen. Antiestrogenic, antimutagenic, and antiviral are some properties associated with plant lignans. The explained mechanisms of the lignans upon the immune system are the induction of cell differentiation, suppression of angiogenesis, and inhibition of tyrosine kinases and topoisomerases. Research reveals antioxidant capabilities of lignans. Experimental trials involving humans, animals, and in vitro experiments exhibit the protective effect lignans have against cancer and heart disease.

Genistein is an isoflavone that can be classified as a phytoestrogen and has been widely studied for its anticancer properties. Research has shown that genistein can inhibit 5 alpha reductase and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid in vitro. It inhibits the metabolism of hormone-sensitive cancers of the prostate, bowel, and breast. Other biologic activities attributed to genistein are antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and histidine kinase inhibition.

Squalene is an isoprenoid compound that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Biological activities include cancer prevention, immunostimulation, bactericidal effects, lipoxygenase inhibition, and antitumor properties. Squalene acts as a potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in the skin, which explains its protective mechanism against UV radiation. In animal experiments, squalene has been shown to aid in the elimination of xenobiotics due to the affinity for non-ionized substances.


Immunological and Infectious Diseases:

'P' Anti-Bacterial Antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and Trichomonas vaginalis. Powerful Anti-Viral, Anti-Fungal mild, Influenza, Common Colds, Stimulates and regulates the Immune system without the risk of making it overactive. It is reported beneficial for allergies but that has not been my experience; there are other buds better for allergies. Beta glucan can stimulate several aspects of immune function, such as phagocytosis and interleukin production. Once a white cell has left the blood vessel and migrated to the enemy, the next job is to EAT the microbe. This human macrophage, like its cousin the neutrophil, is a professional "phagocyte" or eating cell (phago = "eating", cyte = "cell"). The macrophage is using its internal cytoskeleton to envelop cells of the pathogen. But eating the organisms is not enough. To insure that the organisms not grow and divide within the macrophage, the white cell must kill the organisms by some means such as the oxidative burst. Interleukin which are any of a class of naturally occurring proteins important in regulation of lymphocyte function. Several known types are recognized as crucial constituents of the body's immune system. Antigens and microbes stimulate production of interleukins, which induce production of various types of lymphocytes in a complex series of reactions that ensure a plentiful supply of T cells that fight specific infectious agents.

Sterols and sterolins have been shown to modulate the functions of the T-Helper Cells CD4. They regulate autoimmune conditions. Now comes, a new branch of immunology referred to as neuroimmunomodulation. This involves the use of naturally occurring substances able to normalize the immune response. In essence, taking a TH1 dominant state and pushing it to a Th2 state. The same would be true of a TH2 state being pushed to a TH1 state. Hence the result is TH1/Th2 balance. Studies have shown that oral administration of plant sterols combined with plant enzymes is able to balance TH1 and TH2 cell types. Plant sterols appear to offer a way of maintaining an integrative immune system.

Caseolin and Oleosin are thioredoxin-reductase which are proteins that act as antioxidants by facilitating the reduction of other proteinsby cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange. Recombinant polypeptide can be an immunoglobulin heavy chain, or an immunologically active portion. Producing an immunoglobulin, through an oil-body-targeting-protein capable of associating with said oil bodies and said firstimmunoglobulin-polypeptide-chain for use here include substantially intact
immunoglobulins, including any IgG, IgA, IgD, IgE and IgM. Nucleic acid sequence capable of terminating transcription in said cell. The oil-body-protein can be an oleosin or a caleosin, the first redox protein can be a thioredoxin and said second redox protein can be a thioredoxin-reductase. An immunologically active (capable of antigen binding multimeric-protein-complex).


Caleosin and Oleosin:

• Body-Targeting-Proteins and the First and/or Second Recombinant Polypeptides.
• Multimeric-Protein-Complexes.
• Heteromultimeric-Protein-Complexes.
• Multimeric-Fusion-Proteins.
• Heteromultimeric-Fusion-Proteins.
• Immunoglobulins.
• Immunoglobulin-Polypeptide-Chains
• Redox-Fusion-Polypeptides, or the First and/or Second Thioredoxin-Related Proteins.

The presence of ergosterol in fungal cell membranes coupled with its absence in animal cell membranes makes it a useful target for antifungal drugs. Ergosterol is also used as a fluidizer in the cell membranes of some protists, such as trypanosomes. This is the basis for the use of some antifungals against West African sleeping sickness. It binds to ergosterol and creates a polar pore in fungal membranes. This causes ions (predominantly K+ and H+) and other molecules to leak out of the cell, killing it.

Allergenicity to various foods is reduced due to activity of the thioredoxin-related protein or fragment.
One of the main reason to use these young rootlets would be in resistant biofilms bacterial infections long standing, be it Antiviral, Bacterial, Fungal or Parasitic. Antiseptic and Bactericidal due to their phenols chalcone content. Sesquiterpene Abscisic Acid acts as a human cytokine. Involved in the stimulation of human granulocytes with cyclic ADP-ribose as second messenger. The ABA calls in more granulocytes, and possibly other immune cell types, by activating chemokinesis random (interleukin-8). It also stimulates phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (which help kill pathogens) and stimulate nitric oxide (another cytokine). Abscisic acid is a close relative of Vitamin A. Basically; the term "cytokine" has been used to refer to the immunomodulating agents(interleukins, interferons, etc.). Conflicting data exists about what is termed a cytokine and what is termed a hormone.

Reversal of an immunity associated plant cell death program by the growth regulator Auxin. Plant growth regulator auxin can inhibit the cell death elicited by a purified proteinaceous hypersensitive response (HR) elicitor. The inhibition affects “reporters of immune response”which is “immune response-related to signaling pathways”. The innate immune system is ancient and highly conserved. It is the first line of defense. Signaling events that convert pathogen detection into a defense response are central to innate immunity.

References: Suresh Gopalan: Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital & Department of Genetics, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02114, USADOE-Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.. Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

In plants, the best-characterized ABC transporters are the full-size subfamilies of transporters, including the multi-drug resistance-related protein (MRP) transporter subfamily, the pleiotropic drug resistance protein (PDR) subfamily, and the multi-drug resistance P-glycoproteins (PGP) subfamily. The MRP transporters are known to function in vacuolar sequestration of glutathionylated compounds, malonylated chlorophyll catabolites and in guard cell ion flux. PDR subfamily members are characterized in fungal systems as efflux transporters of cytotoxic compounds (and in plants they are involved in exporting antifungal diterpene defense compounds to the leaf surface and also in disease resistance. Members of the third subfamily, the P-glycoproteins PGP transporters, are characterized to date as being implicated in the transport of the phytohormone auxin.

Brassinosteroids have immuno-modulating effects normalizing an over-reactive antibody response as well as anti-inflammatory' and 'anti-cancer properties. Their effects on immune system balance are thought to be beneficial in treatment of allergies and other autoimmune conditions. Also antiherpetic activity. Some of the brassinosteroids compounds showed selectivity indexes (SI) 10- to 18- fold higher than ribavirin, a “broad spectrum antiviral compound”, when tested against Junin virus (JV) (Arenaviridae); a good antiviral activity against measles virus (MV) (Paramixoviridae), with SI values also higher than ribavirin used as reference drug, and a similar or lower activity against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) (Herpesviridae) when compared to foscarnet or acyclovir, respectively. The scope of antiviral activity of these compounds against RNA and DNA viruses a selective class of virus inhibitors. Brassinosteroids have immuno-modulating effects normalizing an over-reactive antibody response as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The scope of antiviral activity of these brassinosteroids against RNA and DNA viruses a selective class of virus inhibitors.

References: Authors: Wachsman M.B.1; Ramirez J.A.1; Talarico L.B.1; Galagovsky L.R.1; Coto C.E.1 Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Infective Agents, Volume 3, Number 2, June 2004 , pp. 163-179(17).

One form of plant immunity against pathogens involves a rapid host programmed cell death at the site of infection accompanied by theactivation of local and systemic resistance to pathogens, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Reversal of an immunity associated plant cell death program by the growth regulator auxin. Plant growth regulator auxin can inhibit the cell death elicited by a purified proteinaceous hypersensitive response (HR) elicitor. The inhibition affects “reporters of immune response” which is “immune response-related to signaling pathways” NFκB, PKC/Ca++, Type 1 Interferons, Interferon Gamma, MAPK/ERK, MAPK/JNK, TGFβ, cAMP/PKA, C/EBP, Notch. Statins has shown promise in treating a mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis, an inflammatory autoimmune disease.

Jasmonates-Jasmonic acid (JA), Methyl jasmonate (MJA) are produced from fatty acids and seem to promote the production of defense proteins that are used to fend off invading organisms. A plant stress and immune hormone that belongs to the jasmonate family. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid by the octadecanoid pathway. It stimulates wound response and protects against dehydration. Antibacterial and Antifungal agents. Methyl jasmonate causes induction of a proteinase inhibitor that accumulates at low concentrations in response to wounding or pathogenic attacks.

Their effects on immune system balance are thought to be beneficial in treatment of allergiesand other autoimmune conditions. The scope of antiviral activity of these brassinosteroids against RNA and DNA viruses a selective class of virus inhibitors.

References: Authors: Wachsman M.B.1; Ramirez J.A.1; Talarico L.B.1; Galagovsky L.R.1; Coto C.E.1 Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Infective Agents, Volume 3, Number 2, June 2004 , pp. 163-179(17).

For these resistant infections you will need to use a higher dosage being 20-30 drops 3 x a day for a period of at least 2 or more months depending on repeat cultures results or other labs testing.


GI – Digestive - Hepatology:

'P' Use together with The triad: Rosemary, Hazel, Rye Polycrest Liver Detox par Excellence. All types of Hepatitis Acute & Chronic, Cirrhosis, Fibrosis, Jaundice, Regenerates the Liver, Alcohol & Drug Addictions. Reduces Liver Enzymes in the blood. Improves bowel function by “Moister feces like that of a mild stool softener and significantly enhanced gut production probiotic”. Significantly increase fecal output and fecal frequency. Best seed for Esophageal varices will arrest bleeding, sclerosing without scaring due to its content of Oleic-Acid and Oleosinsand unsurpassed potent brassinosteroid and Auxins regenerative of the tissue also an antinflammatory. Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s,Abscisic acid cause DNA damage in the bacteria of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). The Indole-acetic acid in auxins is what helps tissue regeneration.

Cytokinins improve internal plant digestion systems utilizing nutrients 20 to 30% better. They also help correct nutrient deficiencies. In short, they reverse conditions that many harsh fertilizers and chemicals have created. Polyamine putrescine supplementation may be beneficial to the growth of mucosal development of the small intestine. The intestinal epithelium has one of the highest cell turnover rates and therefore one of the highest rates of metabolic activity in the body. Polyamine content of an organ is associated with metabolic activity.


Musculoskeletal System:

'P' Senile Coxarthritis (osteoarthritis). Contains Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol), a sterol, is a biological precursor to Vitamin D2. It is turned into viosterol by ultraviolet light, and is then converted into ergocalciferol, which is a form of Vitamin D. Ergosterol can prevent Osteoporosis. Caleosins contain an EF-hand, calcium binding (involved in muscle relaxation) via its calcium-binding activity domain, a proline-rich hydrophobic domain. Thioredoxin-reductase are proteins that act as antioxidants by facilitating the reduction of other proteins by cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange. Excellent for any Myalgias, Fibromyalgia. Protects the joints against free radical damage that can destroy joint tissue. The production of interleukins and cytokines that are associated with a healthy inflammation response are activated by potent steroidal triterpenoids.

The combination of Malic acid from Crab apple buds with Indole acetic acid from embryonic Maize, Rye or Silver Birch seeds makes it a novel phytochemical synergy for the effective management of any types of myalgias. To that combo you can create a triad with the following: Mountain Pine buds (for its profen analgesic action-chondrocytes stimulation if in need of this action), White willow buds (for its salicylic acidcontent being an NSAIDs and immune stimulant). Betulinic acid concentrate when in need of a oncological treatment association with myalgias but not for bone pain.


ENT – Pulmonary System:

'P' Phytoestrogen can provide respiratory relief, nasal congestion, Asthma attack makes breathing easier. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Cystic Fibrosis Oleosin proven to be very effective in these genetic diseases (MacNee et al. (1999) Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160:S58-S65). Steroidal Triterpenoids Hypotensive effect on pulmonary hypertension. Airborne Allergies of all sorts.


Ob Gyn/Reproductive – Endocrine System:

'P' Uterine Fibroids vasoconstrictor in uterine hemorrhages. Hemorrhagic Metritis, Facilitates birth delivery and calms down post delivery pain. Prevents miscarriage especially 3rd month. Lignans act as phytoestrogens (plant chemicals that mimic the hormone estrogen), and also as antioxidants. Due to their estrogenic activity lignans help to reduce hot flushes and vaginal dryness in postmenopausal women and to some degree may inhibit osteoporosis. Normalize estrogenic activity too much estrogen is around, rye's lignans, by occupying estrogen receptors, block out the much more powerful human estrogens, causing a lowering in estrogenic activity and provides protection against breast cancer. Beta-1,3 glucans has some effect on effective glycemic index and insulin response. Toxemia of pregnancy.

Steroidal Triterpenoids Inhibits Hyper Parathyroidism PTH. In pre-clinical studies, cytokinin-rich plant extracts has been shown to alleviate many Diabetic symptoms, including fasting serum glucose, in genetically obese mice, without affecting insulin levels. Good for both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Thioredoxin has been shown to interact with TXNIP, ASK1, Collagen, type I, alpha 1 and glucocorticoid receptor, and insulin. Oleosin-human proinsulin fusion protein.

Abscisic acid neutralizes the effect of chorionic gonadotropin, the hormone that protects the fetus from being rejected. Therefore making it an excellent agent in preventing threatened miscarriage. Also good in Endometriosis, Adenomyosis and Uterine fibroids. Potentiates the follicular stage. The Ultimate Hormonal regulator for hypo or hyper hormonal balance due to brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids far more potent than the other hormones: are C27, C28 and C29 steroids are considered to be key hormones in the world of Plant Kingdom. A plant growth and stress hormone is one of the best hormone to treat human male and female infertility-sterility. A study on animals already prove better metabolic and endocrine status and presented an optimal weaning/estrus period (5 days) as well as a better follicular dynamicswhich all translated into a higher percentage of pregnancies and a higher number of offspring. What achieves this is the combination of Indole-3-acetic acid (auxin), Cytokinin, Gibberellin, and Abscisic acid, Brassinosteroids, Jasmonic acid and Salicylic acid which are all present in the Silver Birch embryonic seed.

References: Anna Maria Szatmari Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Center Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary. Volume 51(2): 137-160, 2007.

These brassinosteroids functions at the cellular level i.e. targets to the cell membrane and the cell receptor to its action in the nucleus, where genes are the targets of regulation. The link of hormones with the class of proteins called kinases, which are linked to the phosphate ions, to brassinosteroids. Such signal transduction pathways were established to show the connection between the proteins and steroidssuch were known to be brassinosteroids signaling kinases studies done by Professor Zhi-Yong Wang Department of Plant Biology Carnegie Institution for Science.

Because of the role that the plant hormone, cytokinin, plays in preventing organ death, the researchers, led by biochemist Daniel R. Gallie, reasoned that cytokinin might rescue those flowers, which were destined to abort.

Jasmonic acid or gibberellic acid is a beneficial hormone for treating or preventing vaginal and/or reproductive problems in a female mammal. They increase the expression of P2Y purinergic receptors or estrogen receptors or vascular endothelial growth factor in vaginal or cervical epithelial cells. They facilitate renewal of regressing vaginal mucosa and prevent or improve vaginal dryness.


Sport Medicine:

'P' Brassinosteroids: a plant growth and stress hormone are similar in many respects to animal steroids, but appear to function very differently at the cellular level. In animal cells, steroids use internal receptor molecules to get a response within the cell’s nucleus. In plant cells, the receptors are anchored to the cell membranes’ outside surface. Brassinosteroids are also one of the most important hormones that regulate stature. Also regulates both the size and senescence.

Brassinosteroids have been shown to increase cell size indicating that the enlargement may be affected by castasterone levels. "Steroids"' are critical for keeping the body running smoothly. Different steroids perform important roles in the body's reproductive system, boost strength and enhance physical performance, and control the body's ability to combat allergic reactions. Although steroids are normally produced inside the human body, sometimes the quantities are insufficient or their production mechanisms are flawed. In these cases, steroids manufactured outside of the body can be administered to produce desired physiological effects.


Renal-Uro Genital System:

P benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) reduces PSA.. Hepatorenal syndrome. Lowers Uric Acid. A milder diuretic action than that of the bark. Renal Hypertension. Has with all the Birch trees considered “Nephritic Trees” all parts of the tree have an effect on the kidneys. Here we have aNovel Steroidal triterpenoids, 3-hydroxy-4(Z), 6(Z), 8(Z), 10(Z)-tetraenoic acid. Biological actions are: Antagonists of the vasoconstriction response. Plays an important role as a second messenger in autoregulation of renal blood flow, tubuloglomerular feedback, renal sodium transport, pulmonary function, and the mitogenic and vasoconstrictor responses to numerous vasoactive hormones and growth factors. The formation of cytochrome P-450 metabolites of AA is altered in genetic and experimental models of hypertension, diabetes, hepatorenal syndrome, and toxemia of pregnancy. Also contributes to the vasoconstrictor actions of angiotensin II, endothelin, and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and the inhibitory effects of parathyroid hormone, dopamine, angiotensin II, bradykinin, endothelin, and vasopressin on sodium transport in the kidney.

Given the critical role of this substance in the regulation of renal and pulmonary function, vascular tone, and the control of arterial pressure, it is likely that stable steroidal triterpenoids, 3-hydroxy-4(Z), 6(Z), 8(Z), 10(Z)-tetraenoic acid antagonists and analogs may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of some of these diseases. The control of renal hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and cardiovascular function.

Brassinosteroids reducing several mammalian steroids with a 3-oxo,D4,5 structure including testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. These receptors achieve their physiological functions by binding to specific DNA sequences termed hormone response elements, thereby activating or suppressing target gene expression in a ligand-dependent manner. Novel steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor for the prostate catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Androgen action in mammals can be regulated at the pre-receptor level by the intracellular formation and degradation of potent androgens, such as 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). In androgen target tissues (e.g. prostate), 5α-DHT is formed from circulating testosterone by the action of the type 2 steroid 5α-reductase (5α-R) and its action is terminated by the action of a reductive 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) which forms the weak androgen 3α-androstanediol.

Oxidative 3α-HSD isoforms, however, can provide an alternative source of potent androgens by converting 3α-androstanediol to 5α-DHT. Working in concert, 5α-Rs and 3α-HSDs determine the amount and the type of androgen available for the androgen receptor and hence affect transcription of genes under androgen control. In peripheral tissues (e.g. liver), type 1 5α-R and reductive 3α-HSD isoforms work consecutively to eliminate androgens and protect against hormone excess.


Dermatology:

Prevents age-related changes in human skin by protecting the DNA in skin cells from damage (antioxidant effects) and decreasing skin water loss. Cytokinins are also known as anti-aging hormones. Cytokinins regulate cell division and influence the rate at which plants age. Depending on the amount of cytokinins present, the aging process in plants can be either accelerated or retarded. One of the active sites of cytokinin production is in the roots. Cytokinins (kinins or lymphokines) - attract phagocytes, increase inflammatory response. Released by injured cells, these short polypeptides increase circulation and capillary permeability; attract white blood cells to the site of injury or infection; and increase sensitivity of nerve endings. When cytokinins are applied to the skin, they stimulate cell division of connective tissue which replaces older, damaged tissue with functionally younger tissue. Oleosin role in contact dermatitis. Will also regulate collagen type 1.
When cytokinins are applied to the skin, they stimulate cell division of connective tissue which replaces older, damaged tissue with functionally younger tissue. The result is that on the surface of the skin, wrinkles tend to flatten out. Dry, aging skin is replaced with smoother, softer skin. Cytokinins modulates (directly or indirectly) catalase activity. Kinetin is a naturally occurring cytokinin first isolated in plants and found in the body's own DNA. The cytokinin substance is an anti-oxidant protector against free radicals that improves the skin's natural moisture barrier and visibly reduces wrinkles. Zeatin the first naturally-occurring cytokinin to be isolated. generally a “juvenile hormone” = keeps things young.

Novel brassinosteroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor for scalp baldness catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Androgen action in mammals can be regulated at the pre-receptor level by the intracellular formation and degradation of potent androgens, such as 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). In androgen target tissues (e.g. androgen baldness), 5α-DHT is formed from circulating testosterone by the action of the type 2 steroid 5α-reductase (5α-R) and its action is terminated by the action of a reductive 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) which forms the weak androgen 3α-androstanediol. Thus, different 5α-R and 3α-HSD isoforms participate in distinct anabolic and catabolic processes and their important roles in androgen action render them drug targets for the treatment of androgen-dependent diseases. Serum androgens in individuals affected by myotonic dystrophy are known to be lower on average than in normal controls. Despite that these females developed diseases that are androgen dependent, including acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia and keratosis pilaris. These cases support the hypothesis that theperipheral response to androgens rather than absolute circulating levels of androgens is important in androgen-dependent conditions.


Hematology-Oncology Infectious-Diseases:

'P' Antiestrogenic, Androgen regulator, Antimutagenic, Hormone-sensitive cancers of the prostate, bowel, and breast. Reduces tumor incidence, slows tumor growth, and prevents cancer metastasis. Increased plasma enterolactone, which is an enterolignan (mammalian lignan) that is formed by intestinal microflora after the consumption of plant lignans. Has been shown to reduce mammary tumor and inhibit colon tumor cell growth and improved bowel function. Beta-1,3 glucans is a well-known biological response modifier (BRM). Mice exposed to 500-900 cGy (500-900 mrads) of gamma radiation exhibited a significantly enhanced recovery of blood leukocyte, platelet and red blood cell counts when given i.v. Beta-1,3 glucans. Cyclic hydroxamic acids are Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors are selective inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. These agents inhibit tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. TNF inhibitors. Cyclic hydroxamic acid inhibits HDAC leading to an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, which may result in an induction of chromatin remodeling; inhibition of the transcription of tumor suppressor genes; HDAC inhibitors have shown impressive antitumor activity in tumor cell division; and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Metalloproteinase inhibitors for breast, ovarian, colorectal, and lung cancers.

References: Patchen, ML; MacVittie TJ (February 1986). "Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice". Journal of biological response modifiers (United States: Raven Press) 5 (1): 45–60. ISSN 0732-6580. PMID 3958754


ABC transporters. As with all the various parts of the birch tree does can prevent some cancers affecting the bladder, breasts, cervix, colon, ovaries, prostrate, and the stomach. Auxins, stimulate enzymes that make estrogen less effective and could reduce the risk for breast cancer. Indoles which detoxifies excess xenoestrogens. Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) in combination with the plant enzyme peroxidase produced toxic by-products that destroyed cancerous tumors while leaving the rest of the body's tissues unscathed. Plant growth regulator auxin caninhibit the cell death elicited by a purified proteinaceous hypersensitive response (HR) elicitor. The inhibition affects “reporters of immune response” which is “immune response-related to signaling pathways”. The innate immune system is ancient and highly conserved. It is the first line of defense. Signaling events that convert pathogen detection into a defense response are central to innate immunity.
Cytokinins influences on cellular DNA repair mechanisms in a person in advance of or following exposure of the subject to radiation therapy helpful in the prophylaxis use of these rootlets for the protection of blood cell disorders such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, and anemia. In regulating cell growth, cytokinins also prevent mistakes that may lead to the development of cancer. Normal cells are kept healthy while cancerous cells are programmed to die, preventing them from growing and spreading. Much of the early research on cytokinins was funded by The American Cancer Society. Soon after the discovery of cytokinins in the 1950s researchers quickly recognized their potential in fighting cancer. Subsequently, the anti-cancer effects of cytokinins have been well documented. Blood-clotting disorders Oleosin might provide us with a new treatment modality for thrombotic diseases. Gaucher Disease genetic disease in which a fatty substance (lipid) accumulates in cells and certain organs. Type I is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder in humans, resulting from deficiencies in the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase (hGC). Oleosin-fusion protein for the production of hGC. Oleosin-human proinsulinfusion protein also will be of benefits for reperfusion injury plays a part in the brain's ischemic cascade, which is involved in stroke and brain trauma. Similar failure processes are involved in brain failure following reversal of cardiac arrest, failure to heal of chronic wounds such as pressure sores and diabetic foot ulcers. Steroidal Triterpenoids Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

A role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, it was identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. ABC transporters play a central role in many biomedical phenomena, including genetic diseases such as tumor resistance, bacterial multidrug resistance, and a range of other inherited human diseases cystic fibrosis, multidrug resistance in cancer patients, and human pathogenic microbes. These transporters mediate diverse cellular transport processes, such as the excretion of potentially toxic compounds, lipid translocation, and heavy metal tolerance, modulation of the activity of ion channels, and nutrient transport and salt stress. ABC transporter can be involved in the EVect of transporters on the secretion of phytochemical and that a transportercan be involved in the secretion of more than one secondary metabolite.

References: Plant Physiology 146:762-771 (2008) American Society of Plant Biologists Dayakar V. Badri, Victor M. Loyola-Vargas, Corey D. Broeckling, Clelia De-la-Peña, Michal Jasinski, Diana Santelia, Enrico Martinoia, Lloyd W. Sumner, Lois M. Banta, Frank Stermitz and Jorge M. Vivanco.

Usually these ABC proteins encode transporters. These transporters provide an advantage to yeasts living in competitive environments by actively secreting toxic compounds, thereby serving as a first-line of defense. Availability and applicability of compounds that may work asABC transporter blockers, as well as the roles of these compounds not only by directly blocking ABC transporters but also in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic drugs used against infectious diseases. These data may be helpful in the design of strategies to circumvent drug resistance in microorganisms including parasites in clinical circumstances. ABC Transporter Blockers and Reversal of Drug Resistance in Microorganisms, Bacterial, Candida albicans, Antimalarial, and Cancer Cells. ABC transporter interactions with endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Inhibition of ABC-transporters by low-molecular weight compounds has been extensively investigated in cancer patients; however, the clinical results have been disappointing.

In prokaryotes, importers mediate the uptake of nutrients into the cell. The substrates that can be transported include ions, amino acids, peptides, sugars, and other molecules that are mostly hydrophilic. The membrane-spanning region of the ABC transporter protects hydrophilic substrates from the lipids of the membrane bilayer thus providing a pathway across the cell membrane. Eukaryotes do not possess any importers. Exporters or effluxers, which are both present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, function as pumps that extrude toxins and drugs out of the cell. In gram-negative bacteria, exporters transport lipids and some polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm. The third subgroup of ABC proteins do not function as transporters, but are rather involved in translation and DNA repair processes.

Inhibition of bacterial protein translation is a key point of anti-microbial intervention therapy, with numerous antibiotics functioning as inhibitors of protein synthesis. The macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics (MLS antibiotics) all cause inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Resistance to this class of antibiotics is mediated by many different mechanisms, at least one of which involves an unusual class of ABC proteins. These antibiotic resistance element (ARE) type ABC proteins do not include membrane spanning segments within the polypeptide and are not linked in operons to membrane spanning regions. A straightforward transport-based explanation for the function of these ABC proteins in antibiotic resistance is therefore difficult to support.

References: Alicia Ponte-Sucre Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela August 2009. Caister Academic Press.

Among the compounds that are mobilized by these transporters are: glutathione-conjugates (Martinoia et al. 1993. Antifungal terpenoids (Jasinski et al. 2001), Auxins (Noh et al. 2001; Geisler et al. 2005), Xavones (Kleinet al. 2000). Steroids (Forestier et al. 2003).

Oleosin are thioredoxin-reductase, and can also be used as a “venom antidote”. Many animal types of venom and other toxins containdisulfide bonds, including all snake venom neurotoxins, some bacterial neurotoxins including tetanus and botulinum A, bee venom phospholipase A.sub.2, and scorpion venom. In a further embodiment, the redox protein related compound genes in plants young rootsprovided herein can be used to inactivate venom toxins by reduction of disulfide bonds. A method of treating an individual suffering from the effects of a venom or toxin can include the step of administering an effective dose of a phyto pharmaceutical extract, in a pharmaceutically effective carrier in an amount sufficient to relieve or reverse the effects of the venom toxin on the individual. Investigational
Antiproliferative activity of 68 plant polyphenols on inhibitory potencies in human liver cancer cells was screened:
The order of their potency to suppress the human liver cancer cells is chalcones > flavones > chromones > isoflavones > flavanones > coumarins.

Chalcones comprise the most potent group with IC50 values ranging from 21.69 to 197 µM. Top nine most potent chalcones in the group have hydroxylation at 2′-carbon position in B-ring. Flavones ranked second in their potencies. Quercetin, 4-hydroxyflavone and luteolin are three hydroxyflavones with highest potencies in this group. Their IC50 values are 30.81, 39.29 and 71.17 µM, respectively. Chromones, isoflavones, flavanones and coumarins showed much lower potencies when compared to the first two groups with IC50 ranges of 61 to >400, 131 to >400, 138 to >400 and 360.85 to >400 µM, respectively. In mechanistic studies, the most potent chalcone, 2,2′-dihydroxychalcone could induce G2/M arrest and then apoptosis of the cancer cells.

References: Department of Experimental Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, BLK 9, Level 3, Outram Road, Singapore, 169608, Singapore 2008. Jacky Loa1, Pierce Chow1 and Kai Zhang1



Cardio Vascular System:

'P' Coenzyme Q10 is thought to treat heart disease and lower high blood pressure. Slow the progression of atherosclerosis. Brassinosteroidsare HMG-CoA reductase (or natural "statins"). Cardiovascular diseases keeping cells younger and Antinflammatory. Brassinosteroids are used successfully and safely for lowering plasma cholesterol and vital functions like lipid hormones. Caseolin and Oleosin novel plant and fungal proteins contain an EF-hand calcium binding (involved in muscle relaxation) via its calcium-binding activity domain, a proline-rich hydrophobic domain. Angina chest pain muscle relaxant, Prevents atherosclerotic calcification formation, Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol.


Pulmonary System:

'P' Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Cystic Fibrosis Oleosin proven to be very effective in these genetic diseases (MacNee et al. (1999) Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160:S58-S65). Steroidal Triterpenoids Hypotensive effect on pulmonary hypertension.


Psychiatry-Nervous System:

'P' Anxiolytic, Sedative mode of action. Anxiolytic sedatives including hypnotics and tranquillizers increase beta activity and attenuate alpha activity. However, all sedative drugs increase low frequencies such as delta and theta. Administration of 1.0 mg (30 drops) of Rye extract significantly increases frontal delta and reduced frontal beta activity. P Higher doses of Secale Cereale, perhaps at 2.0 ml (50 drops) or 5.0 ml (125 drops) would be more appropriate in evoking a larger brain response.
References: Professor Con Stough, Centre of Neuropsychopharmacology Swinburne University, Australia.

Ergosterol can prevent chronic ailments such seasonal affective disorder (SAD) associated Depression. Also giant redwood is good for this condition it already contains vitamin D and makes it a polycrest for people afflicted with skin cancers who cannot expose themselves to sunlight. Antidepressant, antispasmodic and sedative properties echoing those of the phenolic ethers, as do those of esters. Increases Serotonin. Anti Depressant and Stimulant. Birch seed is a stimulant by nature. It stimulates the nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system and the excretory system. Excellent for all types of depression, bi-polar, compulsive, manic disorders, Phobias, ADD, ADHD and will enable the patient to deal with stress. OCD. Plant cells synthesize indole acetic acid IAA from tryptophan and does more than what manmade 5HTP does in a singular supplement. An average of approximately 155 milligrams of tryptophan is present in a 30 drop dose. Increases serotonin.

Increases Serotonin. Anti Depressant and Stimulant. Birch seed is a stimulant by nature. It stimulates the nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system and the excretory system. Excellent for all types of depression, bi-polar, compulsive, manic disorders, Phobias, ADD, ADHD and will enable the patient to deal with stress. OCD. Plant cells synthesize indole acetic acid IAA from tryptophan and does more than what manmade 5HTP does in a singular supplement. An average of approximately 155 milligrams of tryptophan is present in a 30 drop dose. Increases serotonin.
Phenylalanine (Seed contains 11,130 - 11,642 ppm or 10mg per 10 drops): is an essential amino acid that can be converted in the body to tyrosine, which in turn is used to synthesize two important neurotransmitters - dopamine and norepinephrine.


Environmental Medicine:

'A' Removes Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. PAHs are usually found as a mixture containing two or more of these compounds, such as soot.

Note: That, the isolation and manipulation of brassinosteroids BRs may create unexpected toxins as byproducts of the modified p450 genes. Here we stay far away from the adulteration or manipulation of modified phytochemicals.