Sweet Chestnut – Castanea Vesca



Family: Fagaceae
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Part Used:
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Buds

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Castanea vesca is a rapidly growing, deciduous tree that grows to 98 feet tall by 49 feet wide. The tree is native to Europe and is known for its exceptionally long life—the Castanea vesca lives as long as one thousand years. When this massive, firmly set tree is planted alone, it spreads its branches firmly on every side. Its thick, dark grey bark has deep furrows that run longitudinally and twist into thick strand-like cables as it ages. Its large (7 to 9 inches long), handsome leaves are shiny with distinct main and secondary veins. Leaf tops are green and shiny with pale undersides. They are arranged alternately on the twig with sharp-pointed, spreading teeth. Pale yellow flowers blossom in June. The fruits of this tree are chestnuts that grow in woody, spiny burs.

The seeds can be eaten raw, cooked, or dried. Chestnut wood makes excellent timber and is used for carpentry, turnery, props, basketry, fence posts, etc. Other uses include fuel, shampoo, starch, and tannin.

Phytotherapy Indications: Anti-inflammatory; Astringent; Expectorant.

Although more commonly thought of as a food crop, sweet chestnut leaves and bark are a good source of tannins, and these have an astringent action useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhea, etc.

The leaves and bark are anti-inflammatory, astringent, expectorant, and tonic. They are harvested in June or July and can be used fresh or dried. An infusion has been used in the treatment of fevers and ague, but is mainly employed for its efficacy in treating convulsive coughs such as whooping cough and in other irritable conditions of the respiratory system. The leaves can also be used in the treatment of rheumatism to ease lower back pains and relieve stiff muscles and joints. A decoction is a useful gargle for treating sore throats.

All parts of the tree are rich in tannin. It is used medicinally as an astringent, and it is useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhea, etc. An infusion of sweet chestnut leaves treats whooping cough, bronchitis, and bronchial congestion. The preparation tightens the mucous membranes and inhibits racking coughs. A decoction of leaves or bark is also valuable as a gargle for sore throats and may be taken for diarrhea. The leaves are also used to treat rheumatic conditions, lower back pain, and stiff joints or muscles.

Bach flower applications: The keywords for prescribing Sweet chestnut are “Extreme mental anguish,” “Hopelessness” and “Despair.” Sweet chestnut relieves heartache, anguish, and emotional pain that cause deep, even total despair. The positive aspect of the remedy is the return of light at the end of an apparent tunnel of darkness, thus reassuring the sufferer that things will get better. These applications also apply to Plant Stem Cell Therapy.


Abstracts of Published Research on Sweet Chestnut – Castanea Vesca:

1. Basic Life Sci. 1992;59:1013-9.
The use of tannin from chestnut (Castanea vesca). Krisper P, Tisler V, Skubic V, Rupnik I, Kobal S.


Oligo-elements:

Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, Si, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, Calcium.


Phytochemical Constituents:

Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic-Acid,Auxins (IAA),Betulin,Brassinosteroids (BR), Caffeic-Acid, Campesterol, Castalagin, Catechin-Gallic Acid, Cellulose, Coumaric-Acid, Cystine,Cytokinins (CK), Ellagic-Acid, Fiber,Gibberellins (GA), Glutamic-Acid, Glycine, Hamamelitannin, Hamamelose, Histidine, Isoleucine,Jasmonic acid (JA), Kaempferol, Leucine, Lysine,, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Methionine, P-Coumaric-Acid, Pectin, Phenylalanine, Plastoquinone, Proline, Quercetin,Salicylates (SA), Serine, Starch, Sterols, Sitosterol, Stigmasterol, Sucrose, Tannin, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine, Vescalagin.

Energy-boosting, immuno-stimulant, nutrient rich Sweet chestnuts are versatile and nutritious. Their energy is released slowly, helping to stabilize blood-sugar levels and boosting energy and strength. Antioxidative and gastro protective activities
of anti-inflammatory formulations derived from chestnut.

Plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), Mitochondrially Targeted Plastoquinone Derivatives as Anti-Senescence Drugs; prolonged lifespan, being especially effective at early and middle stages of aging. In mammals, the effect of plastoquinone on aging was accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases and traits.
Coenzyme.jpg

Coenzyme Q9 (as plastoquinone PQ9)Plastoquinone (PQ) is a quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Plastoquinone is reduced (accepts two protons (H+) from the stromal matrix of the chloroplast, coupled to two electrons (e-) from photosystem II), forming plastoquinol. It transports the protons to the lumen of thylakoid discs, while the electrons continue through the electron transport chain into the cytochrome b6f protein complex. Preventing the damage that those mitochondrial free radicals would have caused has the effect of extending life - aging is nothing more than the accumulation of damage, after all.

Plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), Mitochondrially Targeted Plastoquinone Derivatives as Anti-Senescence Drugs; prolonged lifespan, being especially effective at early and middle stages of aging. In mammals, the effect of plastoquinone on aging was accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases and traits as cataract, retinopathy, glaucoma, balding, canities (the diminishing of pigment in hair producing a range of colors from normal to white that is perceived as gray, osteoporosis, involution of the thymus, anemia, disappearance of estrous cycles in females and libido in males, peroxidation of lipids and proteins, etc. One of the many lines of longevity research I've watched over the past couple of years is the work of Vladimir Skulachev on chemicals that target mitochondria when ingested and work as antioxidants to soak up the free radicals that mitochondria produce in the course of their role as the cell's power plants. Preventing the damage that those mitochondrial free radicals would have caused has the effect of extending life - aging is nothing more than the accumulation of damage, after all.

Skulachev's laboratory has demonstrated a 30% healthy life extension in mice through this methodology, while US research groups have used the naturally produced antioxidant catalase and gene engineering to achieve much the same sort of end result: antioxidants localized to mitochondria, and extension of healthy life in mice. Suppressed spontaneous development of tumors (predominantly lymphomas) in p53(-/-) mice.

The researchers concluded: Extremely high efficiency of plastoquinone, related to its accumulation in the mitochondrial membrane, indicates that mitochondrial ROS production is critical for tumorigenesis at least in some animal models. Agapova and colleagues published their study in Biochemistry - Moscow (Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy:
Polycrest all

Most Powerful AntioxidantAnti Senescence Drugs

Nourishing tree par Excellence with multiple uses. Improves Venous Circulation & the only bud capable of working on Lymphatic Circulation.


Cardio Vascular System:

Detoxifier of the Venous & Lymphatic systems, Venous & Lymphatic Congestions, Anti-inflammatory, Spasmodic Phenomenon, Lymphatic Stasis as in Lymphedema post Mastectomy, Varicose veins & Varicose Ulcers. Varicosities & Varices venous flow disturbances due to contraceptives, Hydrolipexia. Hamamelitannin inhibits the TNF-mediated endothelial cell death without altering the TNF-induced upregulation of endothelial adhesiveness. The observed anti-TNF activity of hamamelitannin may explain the anti-hemorrhagic use, and its claimed use as a protective agent for UV radiation. Hamamelitannin was concluded to have a high protective activity on cell damage induced by peroxides. The antioxidative activities of hamamelitannin.

References: Habtemariam S. 2002. School of Chemical and Life Sciences, The University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, London, UK.


Hematology-Oncology:

Anemia. Mitochondrially Targeted Plastoquinone derivatives as Anti-Senescence Drugs; prolonged lifespan, being especially effective at early and middle stages of aging. Suppressed spontaneous development of tumors (predominantly lymphomas) in p53(-/-) mice. Plastoquinone inhibited the growth of human colon carcinoma HCT116/p53(-/-) xenografts in athymic mice. Plastoquinone was found to initiate reversal of morphological transformation of a malignant type, restoring actin stress fibers and focal adhesion contacts. Plastoquinonesuppressed angiogenesis in Matrigel implants, indicating that mitochondrial ROS could be important for tumor angiogenesis. It also demonstrated that plastoquinone and related positively charged antioxidants are substrates of the P-glycoprotein multidrug resistance pump. The lower anti-tumor effect and decreased intracellular accumulation of plastoquinone, found in the case of HCT116 xenografts bearing mutant forms of p53, could be related to a higher level of P-glycoprotein. The effects of traditional antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on tumor growth and tumor cell phenotype were similar to the effects of plastoquinone but more than 1,000,000 times higher doses of NAC than those of plastoquinone were required, wrote L.S. Agapova and colleagues, Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The researchers concluded: Extremely high efficiency of plastoquinone, related to its accumulation in the mitochondrial membrane, indicates that mitochondrial ROS production is critical for tumorigenesis at least in some animal models. Agapova and colleagues published their study in Biochemistry - Moscow (Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. Inhibitory effect of plastoquinone on tumor development from p53-deficient cells.

References: Biochemistry - Moscow, 2008;73(12):1300-1316).
For additional information, contact V.P. Skulachev, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute Physicochem Biology, Moscow 119991, Russia.

The publisher's contact information for the journal Biochemistry - Moscow is: Maik Nauka, Interperiodica, Springer, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013-1578, USA.

When Vescalagin (ellagitannin) reacts with the flavonoids catechin and epicatechin, a compound called acutissimin A can be formed.

Acutissimin A and its sister compound Acutissimin B (which has also been found in red wine kept in oak and sweet chestnut buds) have antitumor properties. They inhibit the enzyme DNA topoisomerase II, which is known to be a cause of cancer.
The scientists - Stéphane Quideau of the European Institute of Chemistry and Biology in France, and his colleagues – found in studies that Acutissimin A was 250 times more powerful than a current clinically used cancer drug called etoposide.
The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of theepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range," investigators in Karlsruhe, Germany report. Study data from University of Karlsruhe provide new insights into life sciences June 24th, 2008.

Also inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis at micromolar concentrations. C-glycosidic ellagitannin polyphenols as anticancer agents inhibiting Topoisomerase-II. Hamamelitannin inhibits the TNF-mediated endothelial cell death without altering the TNF-induced upregulation of endothelial adhesiveness. The observed anti-TNF activity of hamamelitannin may explain the anti-hemorrhagic use and its claimed use as a protective agent for UV radiation. Hamamelitannin was concluded to have a high protective activity on cell damage induced by peroxides. The antioxidative activities of hamamelitannin.

References: Habtemariam S. 2002. School of Chemical and Life Sciences, The University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, London, UK.


Immunology-Infectious Diseases:

Plastoquinone effect on the involution of the thymus. Antiherpetic evaluation of five nonahydroxyterphenoyl-containing C-glycosidic ellagitannins, castalagin (1), vescalagin (2), grandinin (3), roburin B (5), and roburin D (7), was performed in cultured cells against four HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains, two of which were resistant to Acyclovir. All five ellagitannins displayed significant anti-HSV activities against the Acyclovir-resistant mutants, but the monomeric structures 1-3 were more active than the dimers 5 and 7. Vescalagin (2) stands out among the five congeners tested as the most potent and selective inhibitor, with an IC50 value in the subfemtomolar range and a selectivity index 5x10(5) times higher than that of Acyclovir. Molecular modeling was used to provide a rationale for the surprisingly lower activity profile of its epimer castalagin (1). These ellagitannins have promising potential as novel inhibitors in the search for non-nucleoside drugs active against Acyclovir-resistant herpes viruses. Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie.

References: Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie, Pôle Chimie Organique et Bio-organique, 2 rue Robert Escarpit, F-33607

Coordinated plastoquinone-initiated changes in cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, and E-cadherin-positive intercellular contacts were observed in epithelial tumor cells. In Ras- and SV40-transformed fibroblasts, plastoquinone was found to initiate reversal of morphological transformation of a malignant type, restoring actin stress fibers and focal adhesion contacts. Plastoquinone suppressed angiogenesis in Matrigel implants, indicating that mitochondrial ROS could be important for tumor angiogenesis.

Vescalagin is also Antibacterial Staphylococcies aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Microccocus luteus. When Vescalagin (ellagitannin) reacts with the flavonoids catechin and epicatechin a compound called acutissimin A can be formed. Acutissimin A and its sister compound Acutissimin B (which has also been found in Sweet Chestnut buds and in Oak) have antitumor properties. They inhibit the enzyme DNA topoisomerase II, which is known to be a cause of cancer. Inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis at micromolar concentrations. C-glycosidic ellagitannin polyphenols as anticancer agents inhibiting top2. The scientists - Stéphane Quideau of the European Institute of Chemistry and Biology in France, and his colleagues – found in studies that Acutissimin A was 250 times more powerful than a current clinically used cancer drug called etoposide.

Castalagin is the (33beta)-isomer of vescalagin. Castalagin mediates the killing of Parasitic Leishmania in vitro. Other microorganism-based diseases caused by ectoparasites include Bartonella, Borrelia, Babesia, Dirofilaria, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma. Covers diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites as ticks, fleas, sand flies or mosquitoes. Great potential for Lyme disease. Biological Activities: Antiviral; Antimicrobial; Immunomodulatory; Antitumor; Inhibition of mutagenicity) Carcinogens Inhibition of tumor promotion; Host-mediated antitumor activity; Induction of Apoptosis. Fungicide, Gram(+)icide, Gram(-)icide, Phytoalexin, Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor. The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range," investigators in Karlsruhe, Germany report. Study data from University of Karlsruhe provide new insights into life sciences June 24th, 2008. Plastoquinone inhibit the growth of tumor xenografts of human HPV-16-associated cervical carcinoma.


Dermatology:

Edema, Peri-Ulcers Erythema. Capillary fragility, Hematomas, Cellulite. Balding, Canities (the diminishing of pigment in hair producing a range of colors from normal to white that is perceived as gray. Plastoquinone preventing free radical oxidation or preventing or treating environmental skin damage including photoaging, trauma, discoloration, dryness, thickness, elasticity, or wrinkles.


Ophthalmology:

The effect of plastoquinone on aging was accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases and traits as Cataract, Retinopathy, Glaucoma.


GI-Digestive System:

As an astringent useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhea.


Endocrine System:

Great for Hypoglycemia. Disappearance of estrous cycles in females and Low libido in males.


Musculoskeletal System:

Osteoporosis.


Psychiatry:

For those moments which happen to some people when the anguish is so great as to seem to be unbearable. When the mind or body feels as if it had borne to the utmost limit of its endurance, and that now it must give way. When it seems there is nothing but destruction and annihilation left to face. When you have reached the end of your rope.