Tamarisk – Tamarix Gallica



Tamarisk, sometimes referred to as Saltcedar.

Family: Tamaricaceae



Parts Used:

Young Shoots

The Tamarix gallica is a deep-rooted, deciduous tree that is native to the Mediterranean region and northern China. It grows in semi-arid localities, growing to 17 to 19 feet tall, and is recognized by its stringy appearance. The smooth, reddish-brown bark of younger plants becomes brownish-purple, ridged, and furrowed as it ages. Feathery, needle-like leaves, often encrusted with salt secretions, grow on its thin branches, its dense leaf cover shading out other species. Masses of small, pink flowers blossom on the ends of its branches from June to August.

Sweet manna is produced by the plant. Common uses of the tree include fuel, hedges, soil stabilization, tannin, and wood (general construction, poles, and turnery).

Phytotherapy Indications: Astringent; Detergent; Diuretic; Expectorant; Laxative.

The branchlets and the leaves are astringent and diuretic. An external compress of the leaves is applied to wounds to stop the bleeding.

The manna produced on the plant is detergent, expectorant and, laxative.

Galls produced on the plant as a result of insect damage are astringent. They are used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery.

Tamarisk can be used to treat hepatic damage due to alcohol, chemicals, etc., impaired assimilation and digestion, impaired liver function, lack of appetite, jaundice, chronic hepatitis, ascites, and fluctuating blood glucose levels.


Oligo-elements:

Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, K, Su, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:

B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, C, Calcium.


Phytochemical Constituents:

3 (Methyl thio) propyl isothiocyanate, Acetic-Acid, Aglycone, Alpha-Terpineol, Ascorbic-Acid, Auxins (IAA), Beta-Carotene, Brassinosteroids (BR), Cellulose, Chlorine, Cinnamaldehyde, Citric-Acid, Cytokinins (CK), D-Glucose, Fiber, Florigen, Fructose, Geranial, Geraniol,Gibberellins (GA), Glucose, Hordenine, Isoorientin, Isovitexin, Kaempferol, Lactic-Acid, Limonene, Linoleic-Acid, Lysine, Malic-Acid,Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Methionine, Methyl-Salicylate, Mufa, Myristic-Acid, Oleic-Acid, Orientin, P-Cresol, Palmitic-Acid, Pectin,Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Piperitone, Pufa, Quinic-Acid, Safrole, Stearic-Acid, Succinic-Acid, Tamarixin, Tamarixetin-3-glucoside, Tannin,Tartaric-Acid, Tryptophan, Vitexin.
Its principle constituents are tamarixin and traces of its aglycone, tamarixetin. It is used in bleeding disorders like menorrhagia, bleeding in the rectum and epitasis. It is used in disorders associated with hepatic insufficiency.

It contains an Alkaloid, Tamarixin, which has been linked to its effectiveness in supporting the liver function. Tamarixetin-3-glucoside, Quercetin, Kaempferol.

Evaluation of possible mechanisms of protective role of Tamarix gallica against DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard Study finished January 2006.

Tamarix gallica caused a marked inhibition of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity, oxidative damage and early tumor promotion related events in the liver. These results strongly indicate that T. gallica may have chemopreventive potential. Interestingly, it was found that T. gallica (25 and 50 mg/kg body wt.) resulted in a marked reduction of the incidence of liver tumors. The study was further histologically confirmed. Furthermore to understand the underlying mechanisms of chemopreventive action by T. gallica we evaluated the levels activities of hepatic antioxidant defense enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase activity and hepatic DNA synthesis as a marker for tumor promotion since direct correlation between these marker parameters and carcinogenicity have been well documented. The promotion parameters induced (ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis) by 2-AAF administration in diet with partial hepatectomy (PH) were also significantly suppressed dose-dependently by T. gallica. Therefore, we can conclude that ultimately the protection against liver carcinogenesis by T. gallica methanolic extract might be mediated by multiple actions, which include restoration of cellular antioxidant enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, ODC activity and DNA synthesis.

Isothiocyanates have strong chemopreventive properties against many carcinogen-induced cancers in experimental animal models. Here, we report that phenylmethyl isocyacyanate (PMITC) and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) induced sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in a dose-dependent manner. The sustained JNK activation caused by isothiocyanates was associated with apoptosis induction in various cell types. An inhibitor of the caspase/interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme blocked isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis without inhibiting the JNK activation, which suggests that JNK activation by isothiocyanates is an event that is independent or upstream of the activation of caspase/interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme proteases. PEITC-induced apoptosis was suppressed by interfering with the JNK pathway with a dominant-negative mutant of JNK1 or MEKK1 (JNK1(APF) and MEKK1 (KR), respectively), implying that the JNK pathway is required for apoptotic signaling. Isothiocyanate-induced JNK activation was blocked by the antioxidants 2-mercaptoethanol and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, suggesting that the death signaling was triggered by oxidative stress. Overexpression of Bcl-2 suppressed PEITC-induced JNK activation. In addition, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL suppressed PEITC-induced apoptosis, but failed to protect cells from death induced by overexpression of activated JNK1. These results suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are upstream of JNK. Taken together, our results indicate (i) that JNK mediates PMITC- and PEITC-induced apoptosis and (ii) that PMITC and PEITC may have chemotherapeutic functions besides their chemopreventive functions. Isothiocyanates have been shown to be especially effective in fighting lung and esophageal cancers.

References: Molecular mechanisms of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-mediated apoptosis induced by anticarcinog YR Chen, W Wang, AN Kong, TH Tan. J Biol Chem (1998) 273: 1769-75.

Isothiocyanates stop Carcinogens dead in their tracks in three different ways:
  • 1) They don't allow carcinogens to be activated
  • 2) They counteract the poisonous effects of carcinogens that have been activated
  • 3) They speed up their removal from the body.

Isothiocyanates have been shown to be especially effective in fighting lung and esophageal cancers.
References: London SJ, Yuan J-M, Chung F-L, et al. Isothiocyanates, glutathione S transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms, and lung cancer risk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Lancet 2000;356(9231):724-9.

It contains an alkaloid, Tamarixin that has been linked to its effectiveness in conditions associated with hepatic insufficiency. Tamarisk is also helpful in increasing platelet counts.

Quercetin glycosides are abundant in plants; their 30-O-methyl (isorhamnetin) derivatives are not uncommon. However, the 40-O-methyl Quercetin (Tamarixetin) glycosides are rare in nature. Tamarixetin 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1!2)-b-D-glucopyranoside (neohe-speridoside).Quercetin aglycone and its glycoside. Studies indicate that quercetin, but not rutin, is able to reduce AOM-induced colorectal carcinogenesis.

Particularly in naturally occurring glycosides, the compound ROH from which the carbohydrate residue has been removed is often termed theaglycone, and the carbohydrate residue itself is sometimes referred to as the 'aglycone'. An aglycone is the non-sugar compound remaining after replacement of the glycosyl group from a glycoside by a hydrogen atom. The spelling aglycon is sometimes encountered, but is incorrect.

Two isomeric flavonol 3-O-glycosides, tamarixetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside (1 and 2), were synthesized.

Isomeric.jpg

Quercetin Metabolites Analogs & Derivatives are dietary polyphenolic compounds with definite beneficial effects on health. Claims that quercetin has biological activities are based mainly on in vitro studies with quercetin aglycone. However, quercetin is rapidly metabolized, and we have little knowledge of its availability to tissues. To assess the long-term tissue distribution of quercetin, 2 groups of rats were given a 0.1 or 1% quercetin diet [50 or 500 mg/kg body weight (wt)] for 11 wk. In addition, a 3-d study was done with pigs fed a diet containing 500 mg quercetin/kg body wt. Tissue concentrations of quercetin and quercetin metabolites were analyzed with an optimized extraction method. Quercetin and quercetin metabolites were widely distributed in rat tissues, with the highest concentrations in lungs (3.98 and 15.3 nmol/g tissue for the 0.1 and 1% quercetin diet, respectively) and the lowest in brain, white fat, and spleen. In the short-term pig study, liver (5.87 nmol/g tissue) and kidney (2.51 nmol/g tissue) contained high concentrations of quercetin and quercetin metabolites, whereas brain, heart, and spleen had low concentrations. These studies have for the first time identified target tissues of quercetin, which may help to understand its mechanisms of action in vivo(1).

Although quercetin is not the most predominant flavonoid in our diet (2), it is one of the most studied. Most research has focused on the antioxidant properties of quercetin, its effects on several enzyme systems, and effects on biological pathways involved in carcinogenesis, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases Plant Stem Cells concentrated extracts all have a high concentration of many types of quercetin. Because the properties of quercetin aglycone and quercetin metabolites differ, studies with the aglycone have limited value. For example, the effects of quercetin aglycone on neuronal apoptosis mediated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway do not occur when quercetin is conjugated to a glucuronic acid (3).
Upon absorption in the small intestine, quercetin is metabolized immediately by enzymes in the epithelial cells and further metabolized by the liver. The catechol group of quercetin is methylated at the 3' or 4' position by catechol-O-methyl transferase COMT (4), resulting in the formation of isorhamnetin (3'OCH3-quercetin) or tamarixetin (4'OCH3-quercetin). Both of these metabolites and quercetin can be conjugated at several hydroxyl groups with glucuronic acid or sulfate by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase or sulfotransferase, respectively (5). The plasma half-life of quercetin in humans is between 17 and 28 hours (6-7).

In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that long-term exposure to quercetin in rats results in a wide distribution of quercetin metabolites to most of the organs. A short exposure in pigs did not result in high concentrations of quercetin metabolites in tissues other than kidney and liver. In addition, this study does not exclude the presence of free aglycone in tissues, but when aglycone concentrations are analyzed, attention should be paid to deconjugation reactions during extraction. These experiments have identified target tissues of quercetin, which may help to understand the mechanisms of action of quercetin in vivo.

References
  • 1. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 135:1718-1725, July 2005. Vincent C. J. de Boer*, , Ashwin A. Dihal ,, Hester van der Woude , Ilja C. W. Arts*, Siegfried Wolffram , Gerrit M. Alink , Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens , Jaap Keijer* and Peter C. H. Hollman*,2
  • RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; TNO Quality of Life, Physiological Sciences Department, Zeist, The Netherlands; and Institute of Animal Nutrition & Physiology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Germany.
  • 2. Manach C., Scalbert A., Morand C., Rémésy C., Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;79:727-747.
  • 3. Manach C., Scalbert A., Morand C., Rémésy C., Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;79:727-747.
  • 4. Abbreviations used: COMT, catechol-O-methyl transferase; Hb, hemoglobin; LOD, limit of detection; Q3G, quercetin 3-O-ß-glucoside; wt, weight.
  • 5. Van der Woude H., Boersma M. G., Vervoort J., Rietjens I. M. Identification of 14 quercetin phase II mono- and mixed conjugates and their formation by rat and human phase II in vitro model systems. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2004;17:1520-1530
  • 6. Hollman P.C.H., Arts I.C.W. Flavonols, flavones and flavanols—nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2000;80:1081-1093.
  • 7. Manach C., Donovan J. L. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of dietary flavonoids in humans. Free Radic. Res. 2004;38:771-785.[Medline].


Nutritional Versus Phytotherapeutic Glucosinolate:

Thorough chewing of raw cruciferous vegetables increases glucosinolate contact with plant myrosinase and increases the amount of isothiocyanates absorbed. The likelihood of proper chewing is very unlikely. When ingested in the form of an PSC concentrated extract the concentration and absorption is much greater. Even when plant myrosinase is completely inactivated by heat, the myrosinase activity of human intestinal bacteria allows for some formation and absorption of isothiocyanates. However, the absorption and excretion of isothiocyanates is substantially lower from cooked than from raw cruciferous vegetables.

During metabolism, isothiocyanates are conjugated (bound) to glutathione, an activity that is promoted by a family of enzymes called glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and further metabolized to mercapturic acids.

Glucosinolates are water-soluble compounds that may be leached into cooking water. Boiling cruciferous vegetables from 9-15 minutes resulted in 18-59% decreases in the total glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables. Cooking methods that use less water, such as steaming or microwaving, may reduce glucosinolate losses. However, some cooking practices, including boiling, steaming, and microwaving at high power (750-900 watts), may inactivate myrosinase, the enzyme that catalyzes glucosinolate hydrolysis. Even in the absence of plant myrosinase activity, the myrosinase activity of human intestinal bacteria results in some glucosinolate hydrolysis. However, several studies in humans have found that inactivation of myrosinase in cruciferous vegetables substantially decreases the bioavailability of isothiocyanates. That is one more reason for the use of embryonic plant extract being more therapeutic than that of food which is mainly nutritional.

Their Glucosinolate Precursors
Isothiocyanate
Glucosinolate (precursor)
Food Sources
Allyl Isothiocyanate (AITC)
Sinigrin
Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, horseradish, mustard, radish
Benzyl Isothiocyanate (BITC)
Glucotropaeolin
Cabbage, garden cress, Indian cress
Phenethyl-Isothiocyanate (PEITC)
Gluconasturtiin
Watercress
Sulforaphane (SFN)
Glucoraphanin
Broccoli, Brusseis sprouts, cabbage


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:

Polycrest all

The Bleeding Disorders and Hepatic Insufficiency Agent

Tamarixetin glycosides are rare in nature. Tamarisk young shoots activate Iron Metabolism since it stimulates the formation of Red Blood Corpuscles. Tamarisk Increases Platelets and coagulation. The use of these young shoots must be supervised by a physician since it could cause clots to form in a patient with a predisposition to hyper coagulation. Powerful Antioxidant.

Contraindications: Do not use with hyper-coagulation, thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, arteriosclerosis increases platelets Hematomacrosis and elevated iron.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:

Hepatic Stimulant and Tonic. Anticirrhotic. Improves digestion and assimilation, arrests hepatic damage, accelerates metabolic activity, regulates the concentration of plasma-protein, promotes hepatocellular regeneration, and improves the appetite. Decreases the size of spleen spleenomegaly, helps in coagulation. Blood purifier. Arrest rectal bleeding. Diarrhea and Dysentery. Morpholin-4-yl Moiety, A Novel Brain-Penetrant, orally available corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist with efficacy in alcoholism. Also for alcoholic auto intoxication induces anemia. Stress-induced relapse to alcohol addiction seeking. A potent activity to reverse anxiogenic effects of acute alcohol withdrawal. Extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems mediate behavioral stress responses (Heinrichs and Koob, 2004), primarily through CRF1 receptors (Contarino et al., 1999; Muller and Wurst, 2004). Similar to other potent stressors, acute alcohol withdrawal induces anxiety-like responses that are correlated with increased CRF levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (Olive et al., 2002), sites mediating behavioral stress responses. Accordingly, anxiogenic effects of alcohol withdrawal are reversed by CRF antagonism (Baldwin et al., 1991).

Stimulates Liver function. Alkaloid, Tamarixin in supporting the liver function, by multiple actions, which include restoration of cellular antioxidant enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, ODC activity and DNA synthesis. Hepatoprotective effect in even cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of these young shoots can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating phytochemical constituents of this plant. Increase in the number of the total mass of functioning hepatocytes. The liver enzymes return to normal levels with an increase in total proteins, albumin and hemoglobin. Scientifically validated by many clinical studies. Reversal of the elevated levels of liver marker parameters and tumor promotion markers. Sulforaphane is an organosulfur compound that exhibits antimicrobial properties.Inhibiting Helicobacter pylori growth.

Posology Note: For these kinds of serious health conditions the dosage will have to be much increased than what is normal customary formulae and will have to be more like that of 15 to 30 drops 3 x a day depending severity and response. Instead of the customary posologybeing 3 drops 3 x a day has is normally prescribed.


Pediatric Use:

To move the bowels in children.


Hematology - Oncology:

Haemopoetic, Various types of Anemia, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura. Erythropenia low platelets, Erythropenia medullary. Chronic diffuse Histiocytosis X Hand Schuller Disease. Activates Cholesterol Metabolism. Epistaxis. Lymphatic tumors it as demonstrated to be effective. Colon Cancer. Tamarisk gallica may have chemopreventive potential. Interestingly, it was found that Tamarisk gallica resulted ina marked reduction of the incidence of liver tumors. Can be a candidate for a good chemoprotectant. Nitric oxide scavenging activity.Sulforaphane is an organosulfur compound that exhibits anticancer activities. The anticancer activity of sulforaphane is thought to be related to the induction of phase-II enzymes of xenobiotic transformation (such as quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase), andenhancing the transcription of tumor suppressor proteins, possibly via inhibitory effects on histone deacetylase.

Isothiocyanates have been shown to be especially effective in fighting lung and esophageal cancers.

Isothiocyanates, such asphenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane, have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis and as such are useful chemopreventive agents against the development and proliferation of cancers. They work on a variety of levels. Most notably, they have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis through inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which oxidize compounds such asbenzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into more polar epoxy-diols which can then cause mutation and induce cancer development.
References: London SJ, Yuan J-M, Chung F-L, et al. Isothiocyanates, glutathione S transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms, and lung cancer risk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Lancet 2000;356(9231):724-9.

Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) has been shown to induce apoptosis in certain cancer cell lines, and in some cases, is 'even able to induce apoptosis' in cells that are resistant to some currently used chemotherapeutic drugs. For example, in drug resistant leukemia cellswhich produce the powerful apoptosis inhibitor protein BCl-2.

Phenylisothiocyanate is reacted with an uncharged terminal amino group, under mildly alkaline conditions, to form a cyclical phenylthiocarbamoyl derivative. Then, under acidic conditions, this derivative of the terminal amino acid is cleaved as a thiazolinone derivative.

Effect of T. gallica on 2-AAF-mediated oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity and hyperproliferation response. Therefore, we can conclude that ultimately the protection against liver carcinogenesis by T. gallica methanolic extract might be mediated by multiple actions, which include restoration of cellular antioxidant enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase activity ODC activity and DNA synthesis. Tamarix gallica; Liver carcinogenesis; Tumor promotion Inhibitor; Chemoprevention. Reversal of the elevated levels of liver marker parameters and tumor promotion markers.


ENT:

Epistaxis


Infectious Diseases:

Infectious Mononucleosis. Accelerates the recovery of such infection convalescence by improving the immunological function. Hepatitis C. Tamarix gallica are used to alleviate several physiological distresses and infectious diseases in the Central Sahara region in Africa (Hammiche and Maiza, 2006). Total synthesis of a series of thiazolinone and thiazolidinone analogues of the antibacterial oxazolinone antibiotic indolmycin. Thiazolinone analogues of indolmycin with antiviral and antibacterial activity. Alpha-methyl 2-hydroxy-3-(indol-3-yl)valerate supports a reaction mechanism involving neighboring group participation by the indole C-3 carbon during nucleophilic displacement on the beta-carbon of a C-3 substituent. 2-monoalkylaminothiazolinone analogues have in vitro and vivo activity against both RNA viruses and bacteria. Synthesis, antiviral, antituberculostic and antibacterial activities of some novel, 4-(4'-substituted phenyl)-6-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(substituted imino) pyrimidines.Chalcogenoxanthylium photosensitizers for the photodynamic purging of blood-borne viral and bacterial pathogens. 30 Oct 2005


OB GYN/ Reproductive System:



Menorrhagia, Uterine Fibroids Hemorrhaging. Will arrest many types of bleeding. Leucorrhoea.


Cardio Vascular System:

Vitexin a potent antioxidant-hypotensive but only when given at high dosage is it hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic (nonspecific) properties. Hypotensive effect of VT was attributed to its ganglion-blocking properties and antiinflammatory effects to its anti-histaminic, anti-bradykinin and anti-serotonin properties.


Endocrine System:

Vitexin Goitrogenic; Thyroid-Peroxidase-Inhibitor AB. Excellent in Hypertensive Hyperthyroidism with brachy tachycardia. But only in high dosage is it hypotensive.


Dermatology Trauma:

Topical Use: apply to wounds will stop the bleeding.