Virginia Creeper – Ampelopsis Weitchii



Family: Vitaceae (grape family)
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Part Used:
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Young Shoots

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

Plants of Genus Parthenocissus: is the same as Ampelopsis Weitchii.

• Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) PLANCH. (Virginia creeper), Ger:
Fünfblättrige Zaunrebe, Wilder Wein, Czech: přísavník pětilistý, psí víno.

• Parthenocissus tricuspidata (S. ET Z..) PLANCH. (Boston ivy), Ger: Dreilappige Zaunrebe, Mauerkatze, Czech: přísavník trojcípý.

• Parthenocissus tricuspidata 'Veitchii' (Boston ivy), Ger: Dreilappige Zaunrebe, Mauerkatze, Czech: přísavník trojcípý.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Ampelopsis) Virginia Creeper; Woodbine. Parthenocissus is a backward translation (and a rather lame one, frankly) from the English, with a healthy dose of poetic license. Partheno- means "virgin" (as in "Virginia") and cissus translates as "ivy.“ Meanwhile, the species name, quinquefolia, refers to the 5 leaflets of which each of the leaves is comprised. The second part of the common name is misleading, in that Virginia creeper is a climber, not a creeping vine.
Since Virginia creeper is one of the plants mistaken for poison ivy, many people wonder if it is "poisonous" in the sense that poison ivy is poisonous. The sap flowing through Virginia creeper vines does contain oxalate crystals, which can be an irritant for a small percentage of people.

The Ampelopsis weitchii is a deciduous, woody ornamental vine known for its ability to tenaciously cling to wood, stone, or brick. It is a rapid grower, reaching 30 to 50 ft long and superficially resembling poison ivy when seen climbing tree bark in winter. The dark green, overlapping leaves of the Ampelopsis weitchii add an air of elegance to residences and beautify the most unsightly buildings. Leaves turn brilliant tints of orange-red in fall, creating an eye-catching autumn display before shedding for the winter. The vine is in bloom from June to August, and its dark blue, clusters of fruit (poisonous to humans but not wildlife) ripen in autumn.

Common uses include dye, ground cover.


Phytotherapy Indications:

It is stimulating, diaphoretic and cathartic. Many virtues were attributed by our forefathers to this plant. Its berries have been found of use in febrile disorders, and were regarded as a specific against the plague and similar disorders, for which they were infused in vinegar. During the Great Plague of London, ivy berries were administered with some success as they have antiseptic virtues and are able to induce perspiration.

In India, the leaves are used as aperients, and a resinous matter that in warm climates exudes from the bark of the main stems (and may be procured by wounding them) is considered a useful stimulant, antispasmodic, and emmenagogue. This gum possesses mildly aperient properties, and it was at one time included as a medicine in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia but has now fallen out of use. Dissolved in vinegar, it had the reputation of being a good filling for a hollow tooth causing neuralgic toothache.

The leaves have a very unpleasant taste. Taken inwardly in infusion, they act as an aperient and emetic, but are sudorific. They have been given on the Continent to children suffering from atrophy. When applied to the nostrils, the juice is said to cure headache. An infusion of the leaves and berries will also mitigate a severe headache.

The fresh leaves of ivy, boiled in vinegar and applied warm to the sides of those who are troubled with the spleen or with stitch in the sides, will give much ease. The same can be applied with rose water and oil of roses to the temples and forehead to ease headaches. Cups made from ivy wood have been employed; the patient with diseases of the spleen will sip hot or cold water from them.

A decoction of the leaves applied externally will destroy head lice in children, and fresh ivy leaves bruised and applied will afford great relief to bunions and shooting corns, a remedy to the excellence of which John Wesley has testified.
The leaves have also been employed as poultices and fomentations in glandular enlargements, indolent ulcers, etc.

A decoction of the leaves has been used as a black dye.

The berries possess much the same properties as the leaves, being strongly purgative and emetic. An infusion of the berries has been frequently found serviceable in rheumatic complaints and is reported to have cured the dropsy.

The dried bark is also used in a decoction. When stripped from the branches (after the berries have ripened) and dried in the sun, it occurs in quilled pieces 2 to 3 inches long and from 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter, externally brown with enlarged transverse scars, the fracture showing a white bark with coarse, flattened fibres in the inner portion. One ounce of the bark to a pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses.

A fluid extract is also prepared from the bark and twigs, of which the dose is 1/2 to 1 drachma; another preparation, Ampelopsin, is taken in doses of 2 to 4 grains.

American Indians used plant tea for jaundice, root tea for diarrhea and gonorrhea, and leaf tea for swellings, poison-sumac rash, wounds, and lockjaw. It has also been used as an astringent and diuretic.

The properties depend on the special balsamic resin contained in its leaves and stems, as well as in its particular aromatic gum. The berries contain a very bitter principle somewhat like quinine. The alkaloid contained in it is termed Hederin.
In scrofulous affections the drug is principally employed in the form of a syrup.


Phytosociology:

Can be grown on slopes for erosion control.


Abstracts of Published Research on Virginia Creeper – Ampelopsis Weitchii:

1. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009 Apr;34(7):908-10
Effect of ampelopsis of Ampelopsis grossedentata on duck hepatitis B virus. Yan L, Zheng Z.

2.Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Mar;29(3):260-2
The chemotaxis effect of ampelopsin on the immunocytes Zeng S, Luo GQ, Liu DY.

3. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Sep;27(9):650-3
Investigation on the antioxidant activities in vitro of extracts from Ampelopsis humilifolia var. heterophylla and A. sinica. Chen K, Ye C, Plumb GW, Bao Y.

4.Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):175-8
Hepatoprotective activity of tocha, the stems and leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata, and ampelopsin. Murakami T, Miyakoshi M, Araho D, Mizutani K, Kambara T, Ikeda T, Chou WH, Inukai M, Takenaka A, Igarashi K.

5.Biomed Environ Sci. 2004 Jun;17(2):153-64
Ampelopsin, a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 infection targeting HIV entry. Liu DY, Ye JT, Yang WH, Yan J, Zeng CH, Zeng S.

6.Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Apr;25(4):254-6
Studies on the chemical constituents from Ampelopsis grossedentata. Wang Y, Zhou L, Li R, Wang.


Oligo-elements:

Al, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si.


Vitamins and Minerals:

C,Calcium.


Phytochemical Constituents:

1,8-Cineole, β-Amyrylhexadecanoate, Alpha-Pinene, Alpha-Terpineol, Auxins (IAA), Beta-Carotene, Beta-Elemene, Beta-Pinene, Bornyl-Acetate, Brassinosteroids (BR), Camphene, Carvacrol, Caryophyllene, Chlorophyll, Citric acid, Cytokinins (CK), Florigen, Friedelanol,Friedelin, D-Gluconic Acid, Geraniol, Sesquiterpene Germacrene-D, Gibberellins (GA), Isomenthone, Kaempferol, Limonene, L (+)-Tartaric Acid, Menthol, Menthone, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Myrcene, Neomenthol, P-Cymene, Piperitenone, Piperitone,Polyalkenes (including Falcarinol, falcarinone, 11-dehydrofalcarinol), Protoanthocyanidins--metal chelating, Pyrocatechin (Oxyphenic acid), Quercetin, Quinic Acid, Resveratrol Oligomers, Parthenocissins A and B, Rutin, Sabinene, Saponins (3-6% content, including Hederin and Hederacosides), Two Novel Antioxidative Stilbene Tetramers; Laetevirenols F and G potent singlet-oxygen quenchers, Stigmasterol, Tartaric acid, Thymol.

Pyrocatachin (Oxyphenic acid) in the embryonic green young shoots. Cisso-tannic acid has been determined as the pigment of the red coloration in the autumnal colored leaves, and has an astringent, bitter taste. The leaves and embryonic shoots when green contain free tartaric acid and its salts, sodium and potassium.

Polyalkenes (including Falcarinol, falcarinone, 11-dehydrofalcarinol) (3S,9Z)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol): is a natural pesticide and fatty alcohol found in carrots, red ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Grape vine buds and Virginia creeper young shoots. It protects roots from fungal diseases, such as liquorice rot that causes black spots on the roots during storage. Falcarinol is a polyyne with two carbon triple bonds and two double bonds. Falcarinol is thought to reduce the risk of developing cancer, as a research team from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne and Danish Universities found in February 2005 in a study on rats, falcarinol delayed or retarded the development of large aberrant crypt foci ACF and colon cancer tumors. Falcarinol to be an active compound with a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.

Falcarinol, a compound that protects the vegetable from fungal diseases. The anti-cancer properties of carrots which contains the most falcarinol are more potent if the vegetable is not cut up before cooking, research shows. Lead researcher Dr Kirsten Brandt, from Newcastle University's School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, said: "Chopping up your carrots increases the surface area so more of the nutrients leach out into the water while they are cooked. "By keeping them whole and chopping them up afterwards you are locking in nutrients and the taste, so the carrot is better for you all round." Did you know that if you eat a carrot raw, you only get access to about 1% of the available beta carotene? But, when you or your child has a glass of carrot juice, you your system absorbs almost 100% of the beta carotene!


Plant Stem Cell Therapy:
Polycrest all


Musculoskeletal System:

Contains 7 Analgesic phytochemicals, 9 Anti-inflammatory and 3 Antirheumatic phytochemicals. Lowers Sedimentation Rate. Rheumatoid Arthritis Deformans, Arthritis, Anodyne of small articulations, Rebuilds Tendons & Ligaments, Tendonitis, Fibromyalgia, Dupuytren’s Contraction, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Antisclerotic, Rheumatoid Poly-Arthritis, Bouchard & Heberden Nodules. Combats sclerotic retraction, Peyronie’s Disease, Palmar Aponeurosis, local indurations. Post inflammatory Adhesions. Sports injuries Ligament and Tendon sprains. Reduces all Deformations and Sclerosis thus limiting distortions. For post sport or accidental injuries.Malic acid neutralizes uric acid, thus alleviating symptoms of gout, arthritis and rheumatism.


Infectious Diseases:

Contains 6 Antiviral phytochemicals. Hepatitis C, Viral Conjunctivitis, Blepharitis.


Gi-Digestive Hepatology:

Contains 16 Antibacterial phytochemicals Anti H-Pylori. Contains 6 Antiviral phytochemicals. Hepatitis C, Viral Conjunctivitis, Blepharitis. Diarrhea. Hederasaponin C (hederacoside C), has been shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to some parasites and bacteria. Antibiotics and Anthelmintics, Stimulating, Diaphoretic and Cathartic. Suppression of liver cytochrome P450 by alpha-hederin: relevance to hepatoprotection. Induction of Metallothionein by α-Hederin has been shown to protect against some hepatotoxicants Cadmium and Dioxin. This study examined the protective effect of α-Hederin.

Tartaric acid Support of colonic health and function Enhance mineral absorption. Tartaric acid lowers total fecal bile acid concentration, mainly due to a reduction in lithocholic and deoxycholic acid. All these parameters of intestinal function may play a role in the prevention of colon cancer. A shortened transit time may hasten the elimination of carcinogens, toxic compounds and byproducts of metabolism and an increased fecal weight may result in dilution of fecal carcinogens – either endogenous or exogenous. Malic and tartaric acid, which boost digestion. They regulate stomach acidity, and help in the digestion of proteins and fats. Moreover, they increase the appetite. Piperitenone is a relaxant of intestinal smooth muscle and suggest that this activity may be mediated at least in part by an intracellular effect. Antiacetylcholinesterase. Thymol is effective antiparasitic against T. cruzi, Chagas disease with higher activity and that thymol may be the main component responsible for the trypanocidal activity.

References: Toxicology and applied pharmacology 1995;134(1):124-31.


Cardio-Vascular System-Hematology:

β-Amyrylhexadecanoate a Thrombin Inhibitor, antithrombin by 92 %. Blood coagulation control is a key point in the treatment of serious disorders (such as Myocardial infarction and stroke), post operative states of patients with prosthetic coronary valves. The arsenal of modern physicians is very limited in the management of drugs influencing coagulation hemostasis. New effective antithrombin agents are an urgent problem. Proanthocyanidins are the principal vasoactive polyphenols which is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart diseaseand to lower overall mortality. Proanthocyanidins suppress production of a protein endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. Help strengthen all the blood vessels and improve the delivery of oxygen to the cells, providing nutritional support to reduce capillary permeability and fragility. Excellent in Hematomacrosis since it chelates excess Iron.

Pyrocatechin or Catechol reduction in atherosclerotic plaques, stroke, heart failure. Decreases inflammation; Decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule expression; Increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity Nitric oxide is needed to maintain arterial relaxation (vasodilation); Decreasing platelet aggregation.

References: N. A. Chistokhodova,1 I. Zhiviriga,2 Ch. Nguen,2 G. D. Miles,1 N. A. Uzhegova,3 and S. Yu. Solodnikov3. University of Central Florida,, Orlando,, USA. (2) University of Florida,, Gainesville,, USA. (3) Perm State University,, Perm, Russia.

Stilbene Tetramers: Laetevirenols F and G potent singlet-oxygen quenchers, are derivative of resveratrol, a compound found in large quantities in vines. Rare potent anti-fungal stilbenes are produced in just a few plants. Inhibitor of COX2. Anti-inflammatory. Stilbene oligomers with an unusual phenanthrene moiety exhibited much stronger antioxidant activities.


Neurological System:

Vertigo, Lockjaw. When applied to the nostrils, a few drops will alleviate a severe headache. Resveratrol oligomers, Parthenocissins A (stilbene) Anti-Stroke; Antioxidant; Nitric Oxide Inhibitor. Biomedical assay showed that the PA treatment suppressed lipid peroxidation and restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain tissue. In addition, the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in brain tissue was also inhibited. Thus, PA demonstrated a neuroprotective effect in the I/R model and the beneficial effects of the compound may result from the reduction of oxidative stress and the inhibition of NO production induced by I/R. The neuroprotective effects of PA have highlighted the potential use of stilbene oligomers in stroke therapy. Thymol increases the brain phospholipids and therefore help an aging brain cognitive function.

References: Shan He 1, Jiehong Yang 2, Bin Wu 1, Yuanjiang Pan 1 *, Haitong Wan 2 *, Yu Wang 2, Yueguang Du 2, Shudong Wang 3 1Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2Institute of Cardio-cerebrovascular Disease, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China.
3Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.

Catechin and epicatechin are also selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) of type MAO-B. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors versus active comparators for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease.


Uro-Genital System:

Difficult urination called Dysuria, Diuretic, Edema. Combats sclerotic retraction for Peyronie’s Disease, reduces all Deformations and Sclerosis thus limiting distortions. Malic acid neutralizes uric acid.


Pulmonary System:

Mucokinetic effect, and they are reported to help loosen abnormal mucus in the respiratory tree. There is some evidence from animal experiments that Virginia creeper’s saponins can increase respiratory tract secretions and can prevent acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm. Expectorant effect in dry cough, common cold, and chronic respiratory tract disorders. Piperitone Antiasthmatic. Thymol forchronic and acute bronchitis.


Dermatology:

Topical application AM and PM for bunions, corns, swollen glands, and ulcers. Antifungal, also for treating the symptoms of mites and bites. Friedelin is effective against; ring worm, athlete’s foot, itching and dermaphytosis of the scalp or beard. Hederasaponin C (hederacoside C), will destroy head lice in children.


Oncology:

Alpha-hederin stimulates NO release and is able to upregulate iNOS expression through NF-kappa B transactivation, which may be a mechanism, whereby alpha-hederin elicits its biological effects. Potentiator; Antiarthritic; Anti-inflammatory; Antileishmanial activity; Antitumor; Apoptotic; Colon Cancer; Liver Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Cytochrome P450 Inhibitor. Falcarinol is thought to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Falcarinol delayed or retarded the development of large aberrant crypt foci ACF and colon cancer tumors. Falcarinol to be an active compound with a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Effects on Cell-Signaling Pathways; Stimulating phase II detoxification enzyme activity; Preserving normal cell cycle regulation; Inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis; Inhibiting tumor invasion and angiogenesis.


Environmental Medicine:

Alpha-Hederin decreases the hepatotoxicity of Cadmium Cd by inducing metallothionein MT, which binds Cadmium in the cytosol, and thus reduces the amount of Cadmium in the critical cellular organelles. Detoxifies excess Iron, Copper and excess Aluminium (not the oligo element amount here we are talking about the toxic amount), from the body. Chelating Cadmium and Dioxin. Studies show that proanthocyanidins antioxidant capabilities are 20 times more powerful than vitamin C and 50 times more potent than vitamin E. Protect against the effects of internal and environmental xenobiotics of pollution body burden, such as cigarette smoking and pollution, as well as supporting normal body metabolic processes. Proanthocyanidins scavenges H2O2, hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron.Studies indicate that proanthocyanidins confers cardioprotection against exogenous H2O2- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito KATP channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron and aluminium chelating directly.


Dental:

The various acids in Virginia creeper also has an antiseptic effect on germs, and prevents tooth decay.